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Transcript of Natural Disasters
Mississippi River Flood
On the 11th March,2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake, located at a depth of 30km, struck near the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan. This event triggered a devastating tsunami that reached a maximum of 37.88 meters above sea level at Miyako (USGS, 2013) Most of the damage and casualties occurred in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima. (ncbi, 2012)
Damage to Infrastructure
Massive damage was recorded to 2126 roads, 56 bridges and 26 railways. An estimated 332,395 buildings, residential and commercial, were damage or completely destroyed and all essential services, electricity, water, gas and telecommunications were seriously disrupted (USGS, 2013). Several Nuclear Reactors incurred damage particularly the Fukushima Plant that suffered a partial meltdown.
As a direct result of the tsunami,the disaster has taken the lives of 15,703 people and displaced from their homes 130,927 Japanese citizens. A total of 4647 people remain missing and 5314 people suffered a range of injuries (USGS, 2013). Most of the deaths, 92% were drownings, occurred in the coastal prefectures as a result of the tsunami (ncbi, 2012).
The recovery effort required to clean up after the disaster was massive. Before reconstruction of homes and buildings, some 20 million tonnes of debris needed to be removed (Red Cross, 2012). Not with standing the loss of life, the psychological trauma to many survivors will also be a long, arduous process, particularly to those permanently relocated from their homes from the Fukushima no-go zone. The disaster has also triggered fundamental changes in the Japanese peoples reliance on Nuclear power generation, with only 2 of 54 reactors still in operation. (UCSF, 2012).
The damage to the Nuclear Power Plant caused atmospheric contamination and polluting of the local seawater, and is the greatest threat to the ecology. Seafood obtained in close proximity to the Fukushima Reactor register unacceptably high levels of radioactive contamination and restrictions on consumption are in place (World Nuclear Association, 2011).The airborne radiation released has severely contaminated the surrounding land (PNAS. 2011), and the Japanese Government has instigated a 20km no-go zone in response, evacuating approximately 160,000 people.
Damage to Infrastucture
The Earthquake brought down many heritage buildings and more than half of the central business district was destroyed (McSaveney 2013). The earthquake triggered extensive damage to the city including damage to the roads, bridges, power lines, water pipes and phone towers (Christchurch City Library).
The Red Cross service was essential to the immediate recovery of the earthquake providing response teams and evacuation centres, the Red Cross also offered support in terms of paying bills and volunteer counselling (Australian Red Cross). Many people evacuated the town to various surrounding cities of the South Island, school children were able to attend school wherever they had gone (Christchurch City Library 2014). The Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority worked extremely hard to protect and sustain water, maintain healthy functioning ecosystems and enhancing the air quality (CERA 2014).
The 6.3 earthquake caused a 30 million tonne piece of ice to break off the Tasman Glacier, which caused up to 3.5m waves to occur in the Tasman Lake which was 200km away (Barry 2011).
In February 2011 Christchurch experienced an earthquake of 6.39 magnitude and many aftershocks measured 4.0 or more (McSaveney 2013)
The death toll of the earthquake was 185 although several thousands of people were injured (McSaveney 2013)
Japan Reference List
The tremendous eruption of Mount Tambora, April 1815, was the most formidable volcanic eruption of the 19th century (McNamara). Expelling approximately 140 gt of magma (Oppenheimer 2003), sweltering debris was thrown into the surrounding ocean causing outburst of boiling hot steam (History Channel 2014).
Damage to Infrstructure
In Sumbawa and the nearby island of Lombok, over 71 000 lives were lost during, or in the aftermath of, the devastating eruption (Oppenheimer 2003). Famine and disease were the prominent causes of death (Seach 2014).
So much rock and ash was thrown out of Tambora that the height of the volcano was reduced from 14,000 to 9,000 feet. The wreckage's also caused a moderate-sized tsunami (History Channel 2014). The sky remained dark for 1-2 days up to 600 km from the volcano (Seach 2014). Not only affecting the climate locally to the volcano, the eruptions of Tambora also affected the climate worldwide (History Channel 2014).1816 became known as The Year Without a Summer (McNamara). All vegetation on the island was destroyed. Uprooted trees, mixed with pumice ash, washed into the sea. Rafts up to 5 km across were formed (Stothers 1984).
Tambora had become a lost community and culture on Sumbawa Island completely suppressed by the ash and volcanic flows from the 1815 natural disaster (National Geographic 2006).
Damage to Infrastructure
A lot of deaths were a result of refugee camps being isolated whilst trying to mend already broken levees. “Official records show 246 people died in the flood, but experts said the actual toll is probably much higher.” (Neuman 2011).
Paul et al. (1998) stated that the managing of the recovery was largely based around economics than that of the concern for the victims. The Red Cross and State Government headed the recovery management which saw African Americans and convicts forced into labour, with refugee camps set up to accommodate them.
The Mississippi River is the fourth longest river in the world, streaming approximately 2,350 miles, starting at Lake Itasca (USA) and runs into the Gulf of Mexico. Heavy rains in late 1926 – early 1927 saw the river flood to “…more than double a flooding Niagara Falls, more than the entire upper Mississippi ever carried...” (Barry 1998, pp. 202-03).
With damaged river banks and contaminated water covering 175,000 acres of land, agriculture and pasture was beyond salvageable. Malnutrition and poor health resulted the Pellagra disease spreading through the refugee camps. This would be “…a disease that killed up to a third of its victims.” (Wilcox 2005).
Hurricane Katrina first touched ground in the USA on 25 August 2005 as a category 1 storm. Not considered dangerous it caused flooding and two deaths before returning back out to sea where it peaked as a categry 5 storm.
In the early hours of 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina hits the shores of South East Louisiana and Southern Mississippi. At that time it was categorised as an extremely dangerous category 3 storm.
Hurricane Katrina is the largest and third most powerful storm to ever impact on the USA.
The damage caused by Hurricane Katrina has been estimated at between $96-$125 billion. Only $40-$66 billion of these losses were insured.
The damage was stretched over approximately 90,000 square miles, with hundreds of thousands of people left unemployed. Gas production was disrupted and economic growth fell by 2%
The death toll for Hurricane Katrina officially stands at 1836.
40% of the death toll were elderly people, 22% were physically unable to evacuate and 25% were chronically ill. 93% of the dead were black African Americans.
The majority were considered to be poor, with New Orleans having twice the national average poverty levels.
The federal government was widely critised for their slow response to Hurricane Katrina for reasons such as poor crisis management and the length of time it took for FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) to become involved.
FEMA estimated that approximately $11.9 billion in public assistance funding was provided to the area to assist with the rebuilding after both Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
Housing was provided to over 900,000 people, with the last resident leaving assisted housing as late as 2012.
John Day, a Professor at the Louisiana State University, said of the ecological damage done by Hurricane Katrina that it "was really an unnatural disaster".
Environmental damage to the region had, until Hurricane Katrina, been caused by man and simply exasperated and highlighted by the disaster.
The worst examples of ongoing damage included shrinkage to Chandeleur, Petit Bois and Ship Islands and the lose of crops. Trees and plants suffered greatly from saltwater intrusion.
A natural disaster is a naturally occurring event that causes catastrophic damage to towns and cities, and results in many injuries and loss of life. The severity of a natural disaster is measured by the death toll, the economic loss and the capability of a rebuild. There are many types of natural disasters ranging from asteroid impact, to drought, to hail storms. This Prezi document will outline the specific disasters of the Earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand 2011, Hurricane Katrina USA 2005, the Tsunami in Japan 2011, the Volcanic Eruption of Mt Tanbora in Indonesia 1816 and the Flood of the Mississippi River, USA 1927.
The data documented in this presentation has been sourced from websites that offered credible, objective, comprehensive, current and accurate information, as per the criteria described by Metzger, 2007.
Metzger, M 2007, 'Making sense of credibility on the web: models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research', Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, vol. 58, no. 13, pp.2078-2091.
As can be seen from the extensive information in this presentation, there are many types of natural disasters that can cause catastrophic amounts of physical damage to the environment, cities, towns and their associated infrastructure. The loss of life, tragically, can be of enormous proportions, and the unseen psychcological damage done to human populations can take many years to overcome. Throughout the subtopics in the mind maps it can be seen that natural disasters can occur anywhere, and at any time around the world, and require great efforts to rebuild and recover. It is not uncommon for one disaster to be the catalyst for subsequent disasters. The mind maps also explain the ecological damage that is caused and outline the recovery management strategies employed.
Australian Red Cross, Long road to recovery for Japanese disaster survivors, 9 March 2012, viewed 6 September, http://www.redcross.org.au/long-road-to-recovery-for-japanese-disaster-survivors.aspx
Journal of Epidemiology, Mortality in 2011 Tsunami in Japan, Published online Jan 5, 2013, viewed 4 September, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3700238/
PNAS, Cesium- 137 Deposition and Contamination of Japanese Soils, 6 December 2011, vol 108, no 49, viewed 3 September, http://www.pnas.org/content/108/49/19530.full.pdf+html
UCSF, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami One Year Later- Lingering Impacts and Lessons, 22 March 2012, viewed 6 September, http://www.ucfs.edu/news/2012/03/11714/japan-earthquake-and-tsunami-one-year-later-lingering-impacts-and-lessons
U.S.G.S, Magnitude 9.0- Near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan, July 23 2013, viewed 1 September, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/ eqinthenews/2011/usc0001xgp/#summary
World Nuclear Association, Fukushima Accident 2011: Appendix 1, 30 September 2011, viewed 29 August, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Safety-and-Security/Safety-of-Plants/Appendices/Fukushima--Reactor-Recovery-Measure
Australian Red Cross 2014, New Zealand Earthquake 2011, viewed 29 August, http://www.redcross.org.au/nz-earthquake-appeal-2011-page.aspx
Barry, C 2011, Earthquake Caused Glacier to Crumble, viewed 27 August, http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/blogs/ag-blog/2011/02/earthquake-caused-glacier-to-crumble/
Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority 2014, Natural Environment Recovery Whakaara Taiao, viewed 29 August 2014, http://cera.govt.nz/recovery-strategy/natural-environment
Canterbury TV Building, n.d. Photograph, viewed 6th September 2014, https://www.google.com.au/search?q=christchurch+earthquake&client=firefox-a&hs=yn6&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&channel=fflb&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=ifkHVKONIc6zuAScv4GoAQ&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=657#rls=org.mozilla%3Aen-US%3Aofficial&channel=fflb&tbm=isch&q=christchurch%20earthquake%20before%20and%20after&revid=1651503053&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=Wh4HnvJor3YBnM%253A%3Bry20_iMa-7PCeM%3Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fleilanisays.files.wordpress.com%252F2011%252F02%252Fchc_quake2.jpg%3Bhttps%253A%252F%252Fleilanisays.wordpress.com%252F2011%252F02%252F%3B563%3B338
Christchurch City Council 2014, Christchurch Earthquake – 22 February 2011, viewed 28 August, http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Kids/NZDisasters/Canterbury-Earthquakes/22-February-2011/
McSaveney, E 2013, Historic Earthquakes, viewed 29 August, http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/historic-earthquakes/page-13
New Zealand Reference List
References Hurricane Katrina:
Kim Ann Zimmermann. "Hurricane Katrina: Facts, Damage & Aftermath". 2012. http://www.livescience.com/22522-hurricane-katrina-facts.html (viewed 9 September)
Unknown. "11 Facts About Hurricane Katrina". 2014.
"https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-hurricane-katrina (viewed 9 September 2014)
Damage to Infrastructure;
Kimberly Amadeo. "How Much Did Hurricane Katrina Damage the U.S. Economy?". Last updated August 2014. http://useconomy.about.com/od/grossdomesticproduct/f/katrina_damage.htm (viewed 6 September 2014)
Unknown. "11 Facts About Hurricane Katrina". 2014.
"https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-hurricane-katrina (viewed 9 September 2014)
JOHN L. BEVEN II, LIXION A. AVILA, ERIC S. BLAKE, DANIEL P. BROWN, JAMES L. FRANKLIN,
RICHARD D. KNABB, RICHARD J. PASCH, JAMIE R. RHOME, AND STACY R. STEWART. "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005". 2006, 2007, 2008. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/mwreviews/2005.pdf (viewed 5 September 2014)
Caroline Heldman. "HURRICANE KATRINA AND THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF DEATH". 2011. http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2011/08/29/hurricane-katrina-and-the-demographics-of-death/ (viewed 5 September 2014)
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). "Louisiana Recovery: Eight Years after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita”. 2013.
http://www.fema.gov/news-release/2013/08/28/louisiana-recovery-eight-years-after-hurricanes-katrina-and-rita (Viewed 10 September 2014)
Anup Shah. "Hurricane Katrina”. 2005.
http://www.globalissues.org/article/564/hurricane-katrina (viewed 10 September, 2014)
Craig Guillot. "Hurricane Katrina's Ecological Legacy: Lost Swamps, Crops, Islands". 2006. http://news.nationalgeographic.com.au/news/2006/08/060823-katrina-ecology.html (viewed 12 September 2014)
Indonesia -Volcanic Eruption
McNamara Robert, 19th Century History Expert. “Eruption Of Mount Tambora”. [Interenet]. http://history1800s.about.com/od/crimesanddisasters/a/Eruption-Of-Mount-Tambora.htm [Viewed 26th August]
Oppenhiemer Clive. “Climatic, Environmental And Human Consequences Of The Largest Known Historic Eruption: Tambora Volcano”. [Internet]. June 2003. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/ehost/detail/detail?sid=2f5f2571-3f42-4ed4-bf44-ffafe9e032ab%40sessionmgr112&vid=0&hid=126&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=9915776 [Viewed 26th August]
Stothers Richard B. “The Great Tambora Eurption In 1815 And Its Aftermath”. [Interent]. 1984. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_(journal) [Viewed 29th August]
Seach John. “Volcano Tambora”. [Interent].
http://www.volcanolive.com/tambora.html [Viewed 5th September]
“Volcanic Eruption Kills 80,000”. [Internet]. 2014. The History Channel website. Available from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/volcanic-eruption-kills-80000 [Viewed 12 Sepetember].
"‘Lost Kingdom’ Discovered on Volcanic Island in Indonesia". [Internet]. 2006. National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/02/0227_060227_lost_kingdom.html [Viewed 5th September]
“URI volcanologist discovers lost kingdom of Tambora” [Internet]. The University of Rhode Island. http://www.uri.edu/news/releases/index.php?id=3467 [Viewed September 9th]
1927 Mississippi Floods Reference List
Barry, B 1998, Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood and How it Changed America, Touchstone.
Bell, R 2011, ‘Mississippi River Floods of 1927, 1937 Far Surpassed Latest Deluge’, Arkansas Business, 30 May, viewed 13 September 2014, http://www.arkansasbusiness.com/article/34354/mississippi-river-floods-of-1927-1937-far-surpassed-latest-deluge.
Deming, BJ 2014, The great Mississippi flood of 1927, views 12 September 2014, http://flighttowonder.com/2014/07/03/the-great-mississippi-flood-of-1927/.
Neuman, S 2011, ‘Along the Mississippi, An old sense of dread rises’, NPR, 10 May, viewed 9 September 2014. http://www.npr.org/2011/05/10/136174860/along-the-mississippi-an-old-sense-of-dread-rises
Paul S. Trotter, G. Alan Johnson, Robert Ricks, David R. Smith 1998. Floods on the lower Mississippi: An Historical Economic Overview.
Wilcox, L S 2005, ‘Old black water’, Preventing Chronic Disease, Vol 2. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2005/nov/05_0191.htm.
Timeline: Fatal Flood/American Experience, viewed 9 September 2014, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/timeline/flood/
“The 1927 flood caused about $1 billion in damage at a time when the entire federal budget was about $3 billion” (Bell 2011), in today’s dollar value. Economic impact covered all industries such as agriculture, coal, oil, saw mills and rail roads.
In summer 2004, a team from the University of Rhode Island, the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, and the Indonesian Directorate of Volcanology, led by Haraldur Sigurdsson, began an archaeological dig in Tambora. "Everything we found had been carbonized," Sigurdsson said. "It had turned to charcoal from the heat of the magma." (The University of Rhode Island)