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Chapter 13 Notes

Chapter 12-13 Notes Art A Brief History, Marilyn Stokstad, Third Edition

Lora Davis

on 23 November 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 13 Notes

The following collection of images demonstrates the wide popularity of the image of David and Goliath in fifteenth century Florentine art. It is well known that David was a symbol of the Florentine Republic, which like the Old Testament youth stood up to its rivals.
Compare with other slides of David
Giovanni di Bicci Medici
Cosimo di il Vecchio Medici
In the 15th century, the leading families of Florence decided they needed a strong person in charge to lead them against the growing threat of rival cities. They chose Cosimo de Medici, a wealthy banker, to take control of the government. Cosimo maintained the appearance of a republican government, but he appointed his relatives and people he could control to important positions. When Cosimo died in 1464, his son and grandson continued his policies.
The Medici's maintained control by exiling people who disagreed with them and encouraging other Italian cities to form alliances with them.
The Medici family of Florence can be traced back to the end of the 12th century.

They were part of the patrician class, and through much of its history the family was seen as the friends of the common people.
Banking and commerce were their occupations and the family acquired great wealth in the 13th century. Along with wealth came

political influence.

At the end of that century, there was a Medici served as the standard bearer of Florence.
In the 14th century the family's wealth and political influence increased.
Salvestro de' Medici led the common people in revolt. And even though Salvestro became the "de facto" dictator of the city, his brutal regime led to his downfall and he was banished in 1382. After that, the family's fortune fell.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (1360-1429) made the Medici the wealthiest family in Italy, perhaps all of Europe.

di Medici
The best known of the Medici's was Cosimo’s grandson, Lorenzo, who was known as “Lorenzo the Magnificent.” Lorenzo was not only a shrewd banker and clever politician; he was also a scholar and a poet. Under Lorenzo’s leadership, Florence became one of the most prosperous cities in Italy, as well as a center of the Renaissance.
1. Patonage is always ESSENTIAL to an IMPORTANT MOVEMENT
Medici Family
and it was
who had a connection with
...among other important artists
Donatello's David
Title: David with the Head of Goliath
Date: ca. 1476
View: Total from front center
Dates for the work vary from the 1430s to the 1460s. In 1469, it is recorded as the centerpiece of the courtyard of the Medici family during the wedding festivities of Lorenzo.
Some have argued that it was commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici in the 1430s to be the centerpiece of the courtyard of the older Medici villa at Via Larga.
Probably the most famous example of fifteenth-century sculpture is the bronze David by Donatello.
The story of David has been a popular subject for artists
The following collection of images demonstrates the wide popularity of the image of David and Goliath.
Italian Andrea del Verrocchio was an early Renaissance painter, sculptor, and teacher. His bronze David, completed in the early 1470s, is in the Museo Nazionale in Florence, Italy.
As we can see from Donatello's sculpture of David, the study of human anatomy was enormously important for Renaissance artists. In this, they continued where the ancient Greeks and Romans had left off. Once again, as in classical antiquity (ancient Greece and Rome) the human figure was considered beautiful.
Remember that in the Middle Ages, there was VERY LITTLE interest in the human body, which was seen as only a temporary vessel for the soul. The body was not important. If anything, the body was seen as sinful, as the cause of temptation. In the Old Testament, Adam and Eve, after they eat the apple from the tree of knowledge, realize that they are naked and cover themselves. So nakedness, and the body generally in the Middle Ages, is associated in Christianity & the temptation and sin and ultimately the FALL of man
The best way to learn human anatomy is not just to look at the outside of the body of course, but to study the insides (ick)! Dissections of the human body were performed in the Renaissance, although they were rare because of church prohibitions. It is said that Leonardo waited outside the morgue for the unclaimed bodies so that he could carry them back to his studio to draw and study them.
Renaissance artists performed dissections and were anxious to learn about the body, and gain the knowledge which would allow them to show the body in many different positions. The human body in the Renaissance was the most beautiful thing to paint, and also something that was a reflection of God
Michelangelo expresses David's heroic nature; while Bernini captures the heroic moment.
Bernini, David. 1623 marble 5' 7"
Originally done for the Florence Cathedral, it became so admired that the Florentine city council placed in on the city's principal square.
Both Verrochio and Donatello show David standing over Goliath's severed head.
Michelangelo, on the other hand depicted David before the battle. David is tense, but not in a physical way (actually, he is relaxed...but he is INTENSE in a mental sense.)
What does this mean????...
This emphasizes man's intellectual thought.
The slingshot he carries over his shoulder is almost invisible, emphasizing that David's victory was one of cleverness, not sheer force.
This is quintessiential Renaissance
Michaelangelo. David, Marble 1501-1504 17'
4. more Donatello...but don't forget Botticelli
Equestrian monument at Gattamelata
Date: 1447-1453
This work became the prototype for honoring military heroes . This a powerful statement of Renaissance respect for military commanders since usually only heads of state would have received such honor;
the horse's hoof, for example is on an orb, the ancient symbol for control over the earth. And although Gattamelata had died in his seventies, Donatello idealizes the general at the height of his powers.
This was the first equestrian statue to be cast since Roman time.
The statue took 10 years to complete - due to working on the interior of the basilica, creating the choir panels and many commissioned statues at the same time.
Donatello also designed the pedestal, which is about twice as high as the bronze statue. At the top are two reliefs and below them false doors, which symbolize doors to the underworld. This gives the monument a sense of a tomb.
5. What's so special about a door?
It's special if Lorenzo Ghiberti has created it!
Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise have large panels and use a square format to accommodate several scenes relating to the Old Testament. These doors depict events from the Creation to the reign of Solomon.
Executed in the lost wax technique, these doors have figures nearly in the round with parts of their bodies extended from the background as well as details in very shallow relief. Deep space is convincing through one-point linear perspective, aerial or atmospheric perspective, and the receding sizes of figures as they recede in the distance.
Schema of the Gates of Paradise
contains 10 books from the Old
Genesis Cain and Abel
Noah Abraham
Issac Joseph
Moses Joshua
David Solomon
Gates of Paradise
Renaissance Europe : The Florence Bapistry 2:06
6. The High Renaissance 1500-1600
During the 16th century, it was the spirit of "new " inquiry...pushing the limits of questioning by artists, writers and thinkers.
During this time, travel in Europe was becoming easier and safer, artist were going mobile!
Styles and techniques were less regional and more international
artists began to change materials...frescos were replaced by oil on canvas
oil paintings were easy to transport and could be installed anywhere.
Going Mobile
The Fabulous Four
The main four artists who emerge during the "High" Renaissance were Raphael, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Titian
Date: ca. 1484
In Alessandro Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus” (1485), the goddess Venus [or Aphrodite as she is known in Greek mythology] emerges from the sea upon a shell in accordance with the myth that explains her birth. Her shell is pushed to the shore from the winds produced by the Zephyr wind-gods amid a shower of roses. As the goddess is about to step on the shore, one of the Nymphs reaches out to cover her with a purple cloak. This painting is among the most treasured masterpieces of the Renaissance.
Here Venus is shown as a beautiful and chaste goddess and symbol of the coming spring. At this time in Renaissance history, when almost all art was of Christian theme, nude women are not often depicted and when they were they symbolized sinful and lust. Most paintings of women during the Middle Ages symbolized the Virgin Mary, showing her in a demure appearance with an angelic smile and covered head.
So why did Botticelli paint the beautiful goddess, not only an obvious symbol of pagan mythology but also as a nude?
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510), a master of Renaissance art, busy doing portraits, mythological themes, and religious works for the Medici family, had varied sources of inspiration for this painting. Perhaps he was inspired to create his Venus by his contemporaries who were rediscovering ancient Greek art and the ancient Greek ideals of beauty. For instance, Leone Battista Alberti, a man often viewed as a model "Renaissance man," writes about his fascination with an ancient Venus statue discovered under the Brunelleschi Villa. He also recommends the mathematical models of human form and the Classical ideals of perfection and motion. To Alberti, motion symbolizes energy. Many aspects of Botticelli’s Venus are in motion: the leaves of the orange trees in the background, ringlets of hair being blown about by the Zephyrs, roses sprinkled throughout the atmosphere, the waves tossing gently, and the cloaks and drapery of the figures blown and lifted by the breeze. Further, the pose of Botticelli's Venus is reminiscent of the Venus de Medici, a marble sculpture and gem inscription from Classical antiquity .
But Botticelli was a craftsman in his own right. His “Venus” is the first large-scale canvas created in Renaissance Florence . He prepared his own tempera pigments with very little fat and covered them with a layer of pure egg white in a process unusual for his time. He had fantastic results. His painting resembles a fresco in its freshness and brightness. It is preserved exceptionally well: the painting today remains firm and elastic with very little cracks.
In the High Renaissance, beginning with Leonardo, we find that artists are considered intellectuals, and that they keep company with the highest levels of society. Quite a change!
All of this has to do with Humanism in the Renaissance of course, and the growing recognition of the achievement of great individuals (something virtually unheard of in the Middle Ages!).
Artists in the Early Renaissance insisted that they should in fact be considered intellectuals because they worked with their brains as well as with their hands. They defended this position by pointing to the scientific tools that they used to make their work more naturalistic (scientific naturalism): the study of human anatomy, of mathematics and geometry, of linear perspective. These were clearly all intellectual pursuits!
Art Appreciation Chapter 12-13
The Renaissance and High Renaissance
The twisted torso, furrowed forehead, and granite grimace of Bernini's "David" is symptomatic of the baroque's interest in dynamic movement and emotion over High Renaissance . Below him are armour and and a disguised harp.
Michelangelo's David vs. Bernini's David
Date: 1501-1504
Period: High Renaissance
Period: Italian Baroque
Material: Marble
Height: 17'
Nude: Yes
Pose: Thoughtful
Moment in story: Before the fight
During the fight
•Baroque is an artistic style prevalent from the late 16th century to the early 18th century.
It is most often defined as a style characterized by dynamic movement, overt emotion.

the theory is that if the horse is standing with one hoof off the ground, the soldier was wounded in battle
two raised hooves indicate that the soldier died in battle.
If the statue shows all four hooves on the ground, the rider died of natural causes
Donatello's, David is seen with an
angular & dreamy child-like pose which represented heroism...a child taking on the adult responsibility of defeating the giant
Contrapposto is an Italian term used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs. This gives the figure a more dynamic, or alternatively relaxed appearance.
CONTRAPPPOSTO...What is it??
Giovanni di Bicci brought the wealth
What does it mean?
The studio or study was intended to provide a place for intellectual pursuits, examining confidential papers or private possessions, or receiving special visitors. The walls of the small room are carried out in wood inlay. Thousands of tiny pieces of different kinds of wood have been used to create the illusion of walls lined with cupboards. Their lattice doors are open, revealing a dazzling array of the accoutrements of the duke's life. Armor and insignia refer to his prowess as a warrior and wise governor; musical and scientific instruments and books attest to his love of learning.

The technique that is employed here is intarsia, the Italian word for wood inlay.
Lost wax casting
What's so special about a studio??
well... Everything when it is a Renaissance Studio!!
The School of Athens, Raphael, Vatican, Rome
The School of Athens represents the
ideals of the Renaissance. Ideal figures,
lofty ideas, elevated architecture which
all tell the story of human achievements!
Raphael's, The School of Athens
Leonardo da Vinci
Early Renaissance...
Andrea del Castagno’s fresco, the Last Supper (1447)

Leonardo was an observer, a scientist,
an inventor, a true Renaissance man

Michelangelo worked for some of the
most influential people in Italy...Lorenzo de Medici, Pope Julius II

He too, was a Renaissance man...painter, sculptor, experimenter
The Adoration of the Shepherds with Saint Catherine of Alexandria, 1599
Cigoli (Ludovico Cardi) (Italian, Florentine, 1559–1613)
Oil on canvas

Source: Cigoli (Ludovico Cardi): The Adoration of the Shepherds with Saint Catherine of Alexandria (1991.7) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Who were the Partician class?

(Latin: patricius, Greek: )
The Partician class...
originally referred to a group of elite families in ancient Rome, including both their natural and adopted members.

the class was broadened to include high council officials, and after the fall of the Western Empire it remained a high honorary title.
Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of elites and subsequently "patrician" became a vaguer term used for aristocrats and elite in many countries.
Bernini, David. 1623, marble 5'7"
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