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Cell Respiration: 8.1.1 - 8.1.4
Transcript of Cell Respiration: 8.1.1 - 8.1.4
State that oxidation is a loss of electrons, and often a loss of hydrogen and a gain of oxygen, and reduction is a gain of electrons, and often a gain of hydrogen and loss of oxygen.
They're opposite! 8.1.2
Glycolis :-) Two phosphate groups add to a glucose molecule to form hexose biphosphate. This is called phosphoryaltion. The energy for the phosphorylation comes from two ATP molecules.
The hexose biphosphate splits to form two triose phosphate molecules. A split of molecules is called lysis.
Two hydrogen atoms from each triose phosphate are removed - this is an oxidation. The hydrogens are accepted by 2NAD(+) to make 2NADH + H(+). The energy from the oxidation allows another phosphate group to link to the triose phosphate, creating a 3-carbon compound with two phosphate groups.
The two phosphate groups are removed and passed to ADP, creating pyruvate. This is ATP formation.
It all happens in the cytoplasm.
(The conversion of glucose to pyruvate.) 8.1.3
Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion, as shown in an electron micrograph. Inside the matrix are 70s ribosomes and a naked loop of DNA. One glucose converted to two pyruvates.
Two ATPs used, four produced.
Two NAD(+) converted to two NADH + (H+) 8.1.4 - Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration is how cells make energy using oxygen and glucose.
It is the result of three processes - Glycolysis, the Link reaction and the Krebs cycle - and it uses oxygen, NADH + H(+) and the electron transport chain. Oxidation Is Loss of electrons; Reduction Is Gain of electrons.
OIL RIG (Ignore the names they use in this!) Link Reaction
Pyruvate from glycolysis is absorbed by the mitochondrion.
Enxymes in the matrix remove hydrogen and carbon dioxide from the pyruvate.
The hydrogen is accepted by NAD+ to become NADH + H(+).
The product is acetyl CoA which is used in the Krebs cycle. Oxidation Reduction It links Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Decarboxylation Krebs Cycle
The acetyl CoA reacts with a 4-carbon organic acid and forms a 6-carbon acetyle, Citrate. This is steadily reduced to the 4-carbon organic acid again through:
Decarboxylation - Carbon Dioxide is removed as a waste product.
Oxidation - Hydrogen is removed. three times it is taken by NAD(+) and once it is taken by FAD(+) to form FAD H+H(+). These oxidations release energy, which is stored by electron carriers for ATP formation later.
Substrate Level Phosphorylation - ATP is produced. Scanner didn't work:
p. 74, IB Study Guide
p. 273, Biology The Electron Transport Chain is a series of electron carriers in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
NADH supplies the first carrier with electrons from oxidation reactions in the Krebs cycle.
The two electrons move along the chain of carriers, giving off energy as they pass between each one.
At three points in the chain enough energy will be collected to form ATP using the enzyme ATP Synthase (also located in the mitochondrial inner membrane).
The process of ATP formation is called oxidative phosphorylation.
FAD(H2) can also supply electrons, but later than NADH and only two spots in the chain collect enough energy for ATP production. Simply: Electrons pass through the Electron Transport Chain and give off energy which is used to make ATP. What does oxygen do?
At the end of the Electron Transport Chain the electrons are given to oxygen, which also takes hydrogen ions to form water.
This happens in the matrix, on the surface of the inner membrane.
If oxygen were not present the flow along the Electron transport Chain would stop and the Link reaction and Krebs cycle would stop.
Glycolysis would continue, but the yield of ATP would go down. Thank You
Biology is Awesome Pour Some Sugar On Me - Def Leppard!!!