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X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

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natalie rotolo

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

History of the Technology
Better image contrast
Dose lower than dose for a CT
Could potentially be used with conventional x-ray tube sources
(Bech et al., 2013)
One scan is cheaper than a MRI scan.
PCI would benefit the economy
(Olivo, 2014)
X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging
Emilee Gillier, John Bauer, Natalie Rotolo, Vanessa Barati
Conventional X-ray vs. Contrast Phase Imaging
How the Technology affects the healthcare system and patients
high detailed images
- high spatial resolution
- high contrast (Coan et al, 2010)
better visualization of pathologies
minimizes amount of diagnostic tests in the future
early diagnoses
Each technique requires different technical and experimental requirements
(Bravin, Coan & Suortti, 2012)
Long acquisition times (approximately 10 seconds)
Challenges including mechanical stability
(Bech et al., 2013)
Very expensive to install
More storage would be needed

Intense theoretical engineering and software and software developments presently on way
(Bravin, Coan & Suortti, 2012)
Quality and Efficiency of
Can better indicate cancerous structures
Phase contrast imaging can take up to three different types of images within one scan
Financial Costs

Australian synchrotron cost $221 million to build ("History of the Australian Synchrotron", n.d.)
Canadian synchrotron cost
approximately $155 million (“Transitional Funding Approved for Saskatchewan Accelerator Facility”, 1997)
New detectors
Talbot-Lau Grating Interferometry (Shimura et al., 2013)
Multiline metal targets embedded in a diamond substrate (Bech, M. et al, 2013)
Additional training for technologists, radiologists and mechanics is needed to work the new technology
How Does it Fit in an Existing Infrastructure
Fits into x-ray, mammography, CT but needs the updated technology and components to be built into the machine (Bravin et al, 2013)
Principle of phase contrast was discovered by Frits Zernike
In the 1970s, synchrotron radiation was discovered
In 2005, CT was incorporated into grating interferometry
In 2006, it was transferred to x-rays
In 2010, analyzer based imaging (ABI) was first used
In 2013, first multi-contrast image was taken in-vivo
How is the Technology Used
PCI is still in pre-clinical testing phase
Currently being tested on guinea pigs for diagnosing osteoarthritis (Coan et al, 2010)
ABI is being tested on excised mouse livers and bunny lungs (Diebold, 2010)
PBI is being used in clinical for mammography. This provides a higher accuracy rate for any abnormalities of the breast (Bravin et al, 2012)
X-Ray circa 1896
X-Ray cira 2005
X-ray circa 201?
What is Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging (PCXI)
Conventional x-rays images are attenuation maps
PCXI radiographs are refractive index maps
sinθ1 n2
---------- = ----------sinθ2 n1
Australian Synchotron. (n.d.). History of the Australian Sychrotron. Retreived from

Bravin, A., Coan, P., & Suortti, P. (2013). X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics. Physics in medicine and biology, 58(1), R1. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/58/1/R1

Bech, M., Tapfer, A., Velroyen, A., Yaroshenko, A., Pauwels, B., Hostens, J., ... & Pfeiffer, F. (2013). In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging. Scientific reports, 3. doi:10.1038/srep03209

Bravin, A., Coan, P., & Suortti, P. (2012). X-ray phase-contrast imaging: from pre-clinical applications towards clinics . Physics in Medicine and Biology, 58(1), R1. Retrieved from http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9155/58/1/R1/article?site_preference=normal

Canadian Light Source Inc. (1997). Transitional Funding Approved for Saskatchewan Accelerator Facility. Retrieved from http://www.lightsource.ca/news/news97.php

Canadian Light Source Inc. (n.d). Machine Design. Retrieved from http://www.lightsource.ca/operations/machinedesign.php

Chou, Cheng-Ying., Huang, Yin., Shi, Daxin., and Mark A. Anastasio. (2007). Image reconstruction in quantitative X-ray phase-contrast imaging employing multiple measurements. Optics Express. 15 (16). 10002-10025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.010002

Coan, P., Wagner, A., Bravin, A., Diemoz, P. C., Keyriläinen, J., & Mollenhauer, J. (2010). In vivo x- ray phase contrast analyzer-based imaging for longitudinal osteoarthritis studies in guinea pigs. Physics in medicine and biology, 55(24), 7649. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/24/017

Coherence. (n.d). [PDF document]. Retrieved from: http://optics.hanyang.ac.kr/~shsong/5-Coherence.pdf

Diebold, G., Derdak, Z., & Wands, J. (2010, December.). X-ray imaging of the microvasculature of murine livers. Retrieved from http://casey.brown.edu/research/crp/Research/Projects/P2/home.htm

Diemoz, P. C., Bravin, A., & Coan, P. (2012). Theoretical comparison of three X-ray phase-contrast imaging techniques: propagation-based imaging, analyzer-based imaging and grating interferometry. Optics express, 20(3), 2789-2805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.002789

Du, Y., Liu, X., Lei, Y., Guo, J., & Niu, H. (2011, October 26). Non-absorption grating approach for x-ray phase contrast imaging . Retrieved from http://www.opticsinfobase.org/view_article.cfm?gotourl=http://www.opticsinfobase.org/DirectPDFAccess/CB62577C-F37A-3FD9-CB9B114E22F71B90_223983/oe-19-23-22669.pdf?da=1&id=223983&seq=0&mobile=no&org=

Konica Minolta. (n.d) Imaging device using a Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Retrieved from http://www.konicaminolta.com/about/research/special_healthcare/talbotlau.html

Laperle, C. M., Hamilton, T. J., Wintermeyer, P., Walker, E. J., Shi, D., Anastasio, M. A., ... & Rose- Petruck, C. (2008). Low density contrast agents for x-ray phase contrast imaging: the use of ambient air for x-ray angiography of excised murine liver tissue. Physics in medicine and biology, 53(23), 6911. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/23/017

Margaritondo, G., Hwu, Y., & Tromba, G. (2003). Synchrotron light: From basics to coherence and coherence-related applications. Science, 3 (1). Retrieved from: http://server2.phys.uniroma1.it/gr/lotus/Mariani_carlo/didattica/cap_02_Margaritondo.pdf

Newborn Bunny Lungs
PCI Image
Photon model of light
Image from Photoseed.com, 2010
Image from SMTVIP.com, 2009
Image from Cornell University, 2010
Wave model of light
Image from Bech et al., 2013
Image from University of Alaska Fairbanks, n.d.
A tissue's attenuation is described by a mass attenuation coefficient
A tissue's refraction of radiation is described by a refractive index
Why Refractive Index?
"...the thickness of water needed to produce a 1% phase-contrast at 36 keV photon energy is 2500 times smaller than that required to produce the same contrast though absorption." (Laperle et al., 2008).
“correlation between the phases... measured at different points on the wave.” ("Coherence," n.d).
spatial coherence: the lack of interference
temporal coherence: the degree of monochromacity
Image from Ryerson University, n.d.
Achieving Coherence
Synchrotron (Stevenson et al., 2007).
Interferometers/diffraction gratings (Pfeiffer et al., 2008).
Crystals (Diemoz, Bravin & Coan, 2012).
Diamond substrate anode with metal targets (Shimura et al., 2013)
Analyzer Based Imaging (ABI)
Monochromator crystal
Analyzer crystal

Image from Wernick et al., 2003.
Monochromator gives coherence
Analyzer only reflects small range of angles onto detector
Reflected angles can be changed
Coan et al., 2010; Bravin, Coan, & Suortti, 2013.

Analyzer based image of mouse bronchi, lungs, and paw
Image from Monash University, n.d.
Propagation Based Imaging (PBI)
No optical equipment
Coherent source and large OID
OID produces interference pattern
Special detector detects interference
Image from Princeton Instruments, 2008
Image from Princeton Instruments, 2008
Image from Princeton Instruments, 2008
Informatics Considerations
New DICOM class for ABI and PBI? Just PCI?
As of now, PCI generally converted to DICOM (Williams et al., 2008)
Computer can render image based on attenuation, phase contrast, and scatter algorithms (Chou, Huang, Shi, & Anastasio, 2007). Do we need all three?
Olivo, A. (2014). Details of grant. Unpublished raw data, Instrumentation Eng. & Dev., University College London, London, UK, London, United Kingdom. , Available from Engineering and Physical Research Council. Retrieved from http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/G004250/1

Paul Scherrer Insitut. (2013). A Promising New Method for the Diagnosis Brest Cancer. Retrieved from http://www.psi.ch/media/a-promising-new-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer

Pfeiffer, F., Bech, M., Bunk, O., Kraft, P., Eikenberry, E. F., Brönnimann, C., ... & David, C. (2008). Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer. Nature materials,7(2), 134-137. http://doi:10.1038/nmat 2096

Princeton Instruments. (2008). X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging. Retrieved from http://www.princetoninstruments.com/Uploads/Princeton/Documents/TechNotes/X_Ray_Phase_Contrast_Imaging_AppNote1RevA1.pdf

Saam, T., Herzen, J., Hetterich, H., Fill, S., Willner, M., Stockmar, M., ... & Bamberg, F. (2013). Translation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Phase-Contrast CT Imaging from Synchrotron Radiation to a Conventional Lab-Based X-Ray Source. PloS one, 8(9), e73513. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073513

Shimura, T., Morimoto, N., Fujino, S., Nagatomi, T., Oshima, K. C., Harada, J., ... & Watanabe, H. (2013). Hard x-ray phase contrast imaging using a tabletop Talbot–Lau interferometer with multiline embedded x-ray targets. Optics letters, 38(2), 157-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.000157

Stevenson, A.W., et al. (2003). Phase-contrast X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation
for materials science applications. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B. 199. 427-435. Retrieved from: fisica.ufpr.br/lorxi/Rcf2/artigos/Stevenson.pdf

The Discovery of X-Rays. (n.d.). NDT Education Resource Center. Retrieved from:

Williams, I. M., Siu, K. K. W., Runxuan, G., He, X., Hart, S. A., Styles, C. B., & Lewis, R. A. (2008). Towards the clinical application of X-ray phase contrast imaging. European journal of radiology, 68(3), S73-S77. http://dx.doi.org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.04.042

XrayCeRT.com. (2013). Medical Imaging Past Present and Future. [Google eBook]. Retrieved
from http://books.google.ca/books?id=DForAgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Zhou, T., Lundstrom, U., Rutishauser, S., Larsson, D. H., Stampanoni, M., David, C., Hertz, H. M., & Burvall, A. (2013, December 2). Comparison of two x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods with a microfocus source. Retrieved from http://www.opticsinfobase.org/view_article.cfm?gotourl=http://www.opticsinfobase.org/DirectPDFAccess/CADB8F27-D56E-2C89-694F924C42F522D2_275077/oe-21-25-30183.pdf?da=1&id=275077&seq=0&mobile=no&org=

Image from Konica Minolta, n.d
Image from Saam et al. 2013
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