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GIS - EN version

GIS - What, When and Where in DG SANTE

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Transcript of GIS - EN version

Peter H. Dana, http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/
USGS, http://mac.usgs.gov/mac/isb/pubs/MapProjections/projections.html
http://mac.usgs.gov/mac/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs01502.html
ESRI, http://www.esri.com
JMU, http://maic.jmu.edu/sic/standards/scale.htm
PipeLine, http://www.pipeline.com/~rking/spc.htm
Colorado State U. http://www.cnr.colostate.edu/class_info/nr502/lg1/map_projections/
Kang-tsung Change, 2003, Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (2nd Edition), McGraw-Hill Higher Education press.
Paul A. Longley et al., 2001, Geographic Information Systems and Science, John Wiley & Sons press.
Keith C. Clarke, 2003, Getting Started with Geographic Information System (4th Edition), Prentice Hall press.

Spatial analysis: determining how places are related
Temporal analysis techniques
Why use and create metadata
Advantages
Simple data structure
Easy overlay
Various kinds of spatial analysis
Uniform size and shape
Cheaper technology
Disadvantages
Large amount of data
Less “pretty”
Projection transformation is difficult
Different scales between layers can be a nightmare
May lose information due to generalization
Raster – Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages
Good representation of reality
Compact data structure
Accurate graphics

Disadvantages
Complex data structures
Simulation may be difficult
Some spatial analysis is difficult or impossible to perform
Vector – Advantages and Disadvantages
Digital spatial data
Land use/zoning
Emergency preparedness
Population forecast
Market analysis
Property tax assessment
Transportation
Planning and economic development
Spatial Analysis: Making Predictions
Spatial Analysis: Detecting and Quantifying Patterns
London cholera epidemic 1854
Attribute data
Raster and vector data models
Two basic data models
Topology
GIS: a simplified view of the real world
Allows the
geographic features
in
real world locations
to be digitally represented and stored in a database so that they can be abstractly presented in
map
(analog) form, and can also be worked with and
manipulated
to address some problem
Forestry
Ecology
Mining
Petroleum
Water resources
Natural resource management
Geography matters
Spatial Analysis: Finding the Best Locations and Paths
Spatial analysis
Dr John Snow is known as the ‘
father of modern epidemiology
’ and the ‘
father of GIS
’ because of the famous case of the 1854 Cholera outbreak in London’s Broad Street region.

In the 1850s, cholera was very poorly understood and massive outbreaks were a common occurrence in major industrial cities. An outbreak in London in 1854 in the Soho district was typical of the time, and the deaths it caused are shown in the map on the right.
Data is organized by
layers, coverages or themes
with each layer representing a common feature.
Layers are
integrated
using
explicit location
on the earth’s surface, thus geographic location is the organizing principal.
The
x
,
y
and
z
axis representating the
longitude

latitude
, and 
elevation
, respectively
Implementation
Geographic integration of information
The convergence of technological fields and traditional disciplines
Geography and related
cartography
geodesy
photogrammetry
landforms
spatial statistics.
Computer science/MIS
graphics
visualization
database
system administration
security
Application area
public admin.
planning
geology
mineral exploration
forestry
site selection
marketing
civil engineering
criminal justice
surveying
Knowledge base for GIS
Farm management
Pest/disease tracking
Crop monitoring
Yield prediction
Soil analysis
Agriculture
http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/diseases/controlmeasures/bt_outbreaks_en.htm
GIS
What - When - Where
Why is GIS unique?
Why GIS?
The GIS data model
Metadata
INSPIRE
Rabies vaccination:
Flights and baits drops in Poland and Romania
What stands GIS for?
Geographic / Geospatial
The locations are known
or calculated
in terms of
coordinates
(
Latitude, Longitude
)

Information
The data may be organised as
colored maps
and
images
, but also as
statistical graphics, tables

and various
on-screen responses to
interactive queries
.

System
Several
inter-related components
with
different functions
make up GIS.
e.g. for
data capture, input, manipulation, transformation, visualization, combinations, query, analysis, modeling and output
a
method:

patterns and processes
in geographical data
a
tool:

automation of time-consuming tasks
(too tedious, expensive or inaccurate if performed by hand)
a
collection of

hardware and software:
for capturing, managing, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographical data
GIS IS...
...defining Geographic Information Systems
GIS: understanding and managing our Earth
Earth
Earth surface: Topo, Ellipsoid, Geoid
Topographic
surface:
real earth surface (ground)
Reference Ellipsoid
surface:
a map of average sea level
Reference Geoid
surface:
a mediate sea level-MSL surface

The Geoid, exaggerated to illustrate the complexity of its' interface
The
earth
is
roughly spherical
but it's
surface
is
not uniform
.
The
oceans
can be treated as uniform.
Mountains and valleys
vary a lot vertically.

A simple mathematical model can not be considered.
Two main reference surfaces have been established to approximate the shape of the earth:
The
geoid

The
ellipsoid
Flat earth models
: radius < 10 km
For short distances.
Spherical earth models
: radius 6371 km, meridian and parallels.
For short range navigation and global distance approximations.
Ellipsoidal earth models
For accurate range and long distance calculations.
Earth shape models
Laying the earth flat?
>> Why?
Enable
measuring and comparing

distances, directions, areas, shapes.
Enable measuring in
meters or feet
>> Not in degrees of latitude & longitude
Enable
detailed measuring
>> 1:24,000 globe would have diameter of ~ 13 m
>> Typical globe has scale of ~ 1:42,000,000
Enable
complex distance
and
area computations
Laying the earth flat?
>> How?
Projections
:
curved earth (Latitude and Longitude) to a flat map (rectangular coordinates)
Impact:
Distorsion distance, area, shape, direction.
The Mercator projection
Viewing the world as a smashed orange
Projection types
DG SANTE
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system
Map scale
The
World Geodetic System (WGS)
is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation. It comprises a standard coordinate system for the Earth, a standard spheroidal reference surface (the datum or reference ellipsoid) for raw altitude data, and a gravitational equipotential surface (the geoid) that defines the nominal sea level.

The latest revision is
WGS 84
(aka
WGS 1984
,
EPSG:4326
), established in 1984 and last revised in 2004.

WGS 84
is currently the reference system being used by the Global Positioning System (
GPS
). It is geocentric and globally consistent within ±1 m.
The World Geodetic System (WGS)
European Terrestrial Reference System 1989
ETRS89:
ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) geodetic Cartesian reference frame, in which the Eurasian Plate as a whole is static.
The coordinates and maps in Europe based on ETRS89 are not subject to change due to the continental drift.
ETRS89 is the
EU-recommended
frame of reference for geodata for Europe.
Longitude and latitude
Parallels
Meridians
The globe:
60 sixty longitudinal UTM zones of
6 degrees wide, and 20 bands of 8 degrees wide from 80° S to 84° N.
UTM Zone Numbers
Coordinate system
Representation of the coordinates
Geographic latitude/longitude
Longitudes
and
latitudes:
for
exact location
of any point
All
equal in length
.
imaginary line joining points
having same longitudes.
Prime Meridian:
passing through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London known as
zero-longitude
reference line.
Imaginary lines running between the geographical poles of the Earth.
Equator is the
longest parallel and
taken as a reference (
zero latitude line
).
The
length
of parallels goes on
decreasing towards
the
poles
.
The parallels at the poles are
point circles
.
The
longitude:
angle formed by the Prime Meridian and the median passing through a point.
From East or West, with 0 to 180 degrees for the East, and 0 to -180 degrees for the West.

The
latitude:
angle between the equatorial plane and the line connecting a point to the center of the Earth.
From North and South angles, +90 degrees for North and -90 degrees for South
UTM system
: a transverse-secant cylindrical projection, division of the surface of the Earth into 6 degree zones with a central meridian in the center of the zone.
UTM conformal projection
: no distortion of small features (all distances, directions, shapes, and areas are reasonably accurate ).
UTM coordinates
: in meters, easier and more accurate calculations of short distances between points (error is less than 0.04%)
Angular measurement is always done in degrees (°), minutes (') and seconds (").
Given below are the coordinates of Brussels in 3 commonly used systems:

Degrees, Minutes and Seconds
: 50°51'00" N, 4°21'00" E
Degrees and decimal Minutes
: 50°51' N, 4°21' E
Decimal degrees Lat Long
: 50.8500° N, 4.3500° E
Relation between map distance and ground distance.
For example, on a 1:100000 scale map, 1cm on the map equals 1km on the ground.
Climate change
Urban growth
Sustainable agriculture
Water quality and availability
International and national security
Energy
Epidemiology/disease tracking
Routing analysis (
e.g. animal transport distance and timing
)
Natural hazards: seismicity, weather events
Point
(vertex, node):
0 dimension
(x, y)
e.g.: location


Line
(arc) :
one dimension

e.g.: road, river


Polygon
(zone): two dimensions
e.g.: city, lake
Adjacency

Connectivity

Containment

Coincidence

Raster spatial data model
Define space as an array of equally sized cells arranged in rows and columns. Each cell contains an attribute value and location coordinates
Individual cells as building blocks for creating images of point, line, area, network and surface

Vector spatial data model
Use x-, y- coordinates to represent point, line, area, network, surface
Example: continuous raster
Attribute data is about “what” of a spatial data and is a list or table of data arranged as rows and columns
Rows are records
(map features)
Columns are fields
(characteristics)
Intersection of a column and a row
shows the values of attributes, such as color, ownership, magnitude, classification…
The meta-DATA
Metadata is an
identity card
of data.
Metadata is the
documentation
of data.
Metadata defines
who, what, when, where, why
, and
how.

How, when, where, and by whom the data was collected
availability and distribution information
its projection, scale, resolution, and accuracy
its reliability with regard to some standard.

To help organize and maintain an organization's spatial data
To provide information to other organizations and clearinghouses to facilitate data sharing and transfer
To document the history of a spatial data set
The i
nfrastructure
for
Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE)
is a European directive 2007/2/EC of 25/04/2007.

Its goal is for an Internet-accessible infrastructure of technologies and permissions to tie European geospatial information producers and users together into a single geospatial information-sharing community to improve decision making and operations in service of a productive and sustainable Europe.
Inspire Metadata
INSPIRE
(Spatial Information in Europe)
hosts a
metadata catalog
.
INSPIRE metadata is based on the ISO 19115 (dataset) and ISO 19119 (services) standard.
European Open Source Metadata Editor
Dr. John Snow
During the 1854 massive cholera in three days over 120 people died from the disease. Dr. John Snow plotted the locations of the deaths on a map and found they clustered around a pump in Broad Street – he suggested that the pump be taken out of service – thus helping to end the epidemic. This then helped him formulate his theory of the spread of cholera by dirty water.
This analysis is famous as it is often considered to be:
The first epidemiological analysis of disease – trying to understand the spread of cases by factors in the environment
The first geographical analysis of disease data – plotting points on a map and looking for relationships
The ability of GIS to
"overlay" different entities
based on their common geographic occurrence makes it a very
valuable tool in epidemiological research.
The idea that place and location can influence health is a very old and familiar concept in Western Medicine.

As far back as the time of Hippocrates, (460-370 BC), the father of Modern Medicine, physicians have observed that certain diseases seem to occur in some places and not in others.
The Hippocratic concept of health and disease stressed the relation between man and his environment.
GIS for health
GIS Analysis
GIS and health
GIS for health
GIS is a valuable tool to assist in health research, in health education, and in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of health programmes and health systems.
Data has both a
spatial and a temporal context
:
everything happens someplace and occurs at some point in time.

Temporal GIS
can be used to assess the management and prevention of infectious diseases and other epidemiological phenomena.
The process of examining the locations, attributes, and relationships of features in spatial data through overlay and other analytical techniques in order to
address a question or gain useful knowledge
.

Spatial analysis extracts or creates new information from spatial data.
Spatial analysis is how we understand our world—mapping where things are, how they relate, what it all means, and what actions to take.
Which rivers are within 10 miles of a pipeline?
Have other crimes occurred at this location? Answering spatial questions often requires an understanding of
spatial relationships
such as
proximity, coincidence, intersection, overlap, visibility
and
accessibility
.
Whether you're looking for the
best route to travel
, the best corridor to build a pipeline, or the best location to site a new store, spatial analysis helps you make more informed decisions about the best locations and paths.
Where are clusters of high expenditures on electronic goods?
Where are the hot spots of cancer deaths?

Detecting
and
quantifying

patterns in data
can be used to find hot spots and outliers, find natural data clusters, and
analyze changes
in patterns
over time.
How will a forest fire spread based on vegetation and wind?
How will store size and travel distance attract or detract customers?

Spatial analysis lets you use powerful modeling techniques to make predictions and
better understand our world.
Romania
Poland
Demo
Buffer Zones Creation
Example of pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Valverde del Fresno
GIS
Thank you!
References

TRACES Sector
DG Health and Food Safety
B232 03/057
B-1049 BRUSSELS
Tel.: +32 2 297 63 50
sante-traces@ec.europa.eu
http://ec.europa.eu/traces/
http://prezi.com/user/TRACES/
Imaginary circles parallel to the
equator
.
Head of TRACES Sector, Dr Didier CARTON
Full transcript