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REVIEW Developmental

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Andrea Wilson

on 1 May 2018

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Transcript of REVIEW Developmental

Module 52: Social Development and Emerging Adulthood
Late Adulthood (65-???)
Emerging Adulthood
Module 48: Social Development
Module 46: Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Self -Concept
Young Adulthood (20-40)
Middle Adulthood (40-65)
Parenting Styles
Unit 9: Developmental Psychology
Prenatal Development
& Teratogenic susceptibility

- inborn, involuntary response. Help to ensure survival
Startle (Moro)
Babies show preference for novel stimuli, but
means that their attention fades with familiarity
Germinal Stage
Physical Development

Brain Development:
Brain is fully formed at birth but neural development continues
Learning and experience cause neural networks to develop
Pruning removes unnecessary pathways allowing others to strengthen
Ages 3-6 most rapid growth occurs in frontal lobes
- biological growth processes that enable the emergence of personality and behavioral characteristics. largely independent of experience
Motor Development
Maturation and Infant Memory
We have few if any reliable memories prior to the age of about 3.5
we don't have the neurological maturity earlier
language and self-identity have matured
Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget - Swiss Psychologist
Worked with children for more than 50 years
Noticed children made characteristic errors on IQ tests at various ages
Believed that the way children think is fundamentally different than the way adults think
We make sense of their world by organizing information into concepts called
- frameworks for organizing information
- interpreting information using existing schemas
- modifying existing schemas to incorporate new information
Piaget's Theory
Sensorimotor Stage
Age: Birth-2yrs
Babies explore the world through their senses
Developmental Phenomena
Object Permanence
- understanding that objects still exist even when they are out of view
occurs by 8 months (according to Piaget)
more recent research suggests it develops gradually starting much earlier
Stranger anxiety
develops during this time
Preoperational Stage
Age: 2-7
Developmental Phenomena
Understands the world through symbols (language) and mental images
Cannot perform mental operations such as reasoning
Pretend play and imagination
Language development
Theory of mind - begins to develop
Concrete Operational Stage
Age 7-11
Developmental Phenomena
Theory Of Mind
The cognitive ability to understand ourselves and others in terms of mental processes like thoughts, perceptions, beliefs, desires and feelings
We understand that others have have mental processes that are separate and unique from our own
People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are said to have an impaired theory of mind
We can think logically about concrete events
Can perform arithmetical operations
Hierarchical Classification
Mathematical transformations
if A+B=C then C-B=A
Formal Operational Stage
Age: 12-adult
Developmental Phenomena
Capable of abstract reasoning
Abstract reasoning
Logical, systematic thinking
Mature moral reasoning
Harlow's Monkeys
- the powerful bond developed with our caregivers
Harry and Margaret Harlow's research between 1957-1963 with rhesus monkeys challenged their theories about attachment being fostered by providing nourishment and proved the importance of body touch in development
When frightened, monkeys retreated to the terry mothers for reassurance and encouragement
Findings highlighted the importance of
contact comfort
Konrad Lorenz
- attachment formed by certain animals like geese and other birds. It is formed with the first thing is sees
Indicated that there was a
Critical Period

or optimal period to stimulate development
In research studies in the 30s, Lorenz separated hatching geese from their mothers, allowing them to imprint on him
This attachment process is different from that in humans and other animals
Attachment Differences
Mary Ainsworth
- The strange situation test
Parents who are attentive and sensitive to their children's needs have children who are securely attached
Parents who are inattentive and respond to their children at their convenience, ignoring the child's needs, have children who are insecurely attached
Experiments placed children in a strange situation and observed differences in their responses
Securely attached
children were relaxed and confident as they explored the new environment
Insecurely attached
children were clingy, unadventurous and distressed at their mother's departure
Secure attachment provides a safe "base" from which to explore our world
Deprivation of Attachment
Lack of attachment and nurture during infancy and childhood has profound and lasting effects
Harlow's continued studies showed that isolated monkeys were never able to interact appropriately with other monkeys
Human children of neglect are withdrawn and insecure
Abused children are more likely to suffer anxiety, depression, and substance abuse problems
Those who are abused are more frequently abusers themselves
Deprivation can lead to poor neurological growth
Disruption of Attachment
Separation from caregivers is emotionally distressing for children
Young children recover quickly when placed in nurturing environments
Children who are older than 2 at the time of an adoption struggle with attachment
Foster care is disruptive to a child emotional growth and well being
We see similar emotional distress when attachment is broken through death or divorce
Day Care
High quality day care does not seem to have any negative effects
Poor quality care is detrimental to development
Children receiving the highest amount of daycare show slight advantages in thinking and language skills as well as elevated aggressiveness and defiance
Our sense of identity and self worth
Forms gradually with our understanding of self starting around 15-18 months
Transition from childhood to adulthood
The period of sexual maturation leading to the ability to reproduce
Begins at age 11 for girls and 13 for boys
Primary sex characteristics
- development of reproductively necessary organs
Secondary sex characteristics
- development of nonreproductive traits
- a woman's first menstrual period
Cognitive Development
Neural networks are still forming
Pruning occurs at the end of puberty
Limbic system and frontal lobes are still developing explaining emotionality and impulsiveness
Ability for abstract thought continues to develop (Piaget's formal operations)
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
Other Theories of Moral Development
Haidt - Moral Foundations Theory - A social intuitionist account of moral reasoning
Moral feelings precede moral reasoning
6 foundations:
Care, Fairness, Liberty, Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity
Moral paradoxes
Kill 1 to save 5
Push 1 to his death to save 5
Though the situations are morally the same, we react differently
Social Development

Forming an Identity
According to Erikson, the task of adolescence is to solidify our sense of self
We develop our sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
As we have an increasingly developed sense of self we also report more positive self concept
Failure to do this leads to role confusion
As we move into young adulthood, we develop an increased capacity for intimacy
Identity Crisis
- A turning point when adolescents make decisions about their lives
Parent and Peer Influence
Most teens have good relationships with their parents with conflict generally revolving about mundane topics
Teens who feel close to their parents tend to be happier and more successful in school
Teens begin to individuate from parents and peers have more influence in many areas but parents influence religious beliefs, political leanings, and career
Teens form close bonds with a few good friends and additional, casual friends
We tend to select friends that are similar to ourselves in age, background, and values
Teens are heavily influenced by their peers in regards to dress, music, and attitudes
We are the most susceptible to peer pressure around the age of 15
Emerging Adulthood
Continued individuation from parents
Growing independence
In industrialized nations, the time between the end of puberty has lengthened and young adults are taking longer to assume adult roles
Tasks - marriage, running a home, starting career, starting a family, creating a network of friends and coworkers
We are our strongest and most cognitively powerful in our 20s and 30s
Our 30s is often a time of reassessment with major life changes like marriage and new careers
Marriage and child-rearing are occurring later in both men and women
Physical Changes
Physical decline occurs, but it is gradual
Healthy lifestyle and exercise minimizes this decline
Skin loses elasticity leading to sagging and wrinkles
Hormones fluctuate leading to menopause in women and lower testosterone in men
Attitudes about these midlife changes have more impact on well-being then the changes themselves
Many women say they actually feel reinvigorated after menopause
Physical Changes
Life expectancy in the US is 78.8 (highest is Monaco at 89.5) with actual values being higher for women
Muscular strength continues to decline
Senses also decline
lessening of visual acuity
less sensitivity to light
decrease in hearing and smell
Body is more frail and you are more susceptible to illness. Get sick less frequently due to increased antibodies from prior illness
Mental Changes In Late Adulthood
We experience gradual mental decline as we age
Cognitive processing speeds decline.
We experience some atrophy with memory being moderately impacted
we have good memory for life events
recall is diminished but recognition is largely intact
we also retain our skill based knowledge
studies indicated that mental decline was a normal part of aging but
longitudinal studies
found intelligence stable
So you lose speed, maintain intelligence, and gain wisdom
Crystallized intelligence
- accumulated knowledge and verbal skills increases with age
Fluid intelligence
- speedy reasoning and abstract thinking decreases slowly to 75 and more rapidly thereafter
Death and Dying
Social Development
Middle age is a time of transition
Jobs and families are established
Children may be leaving home
Midlife crisis or transition - was thought to be a time of strife and upheaval when people struggled with loss of youth and impending old age
research shows it is largely a myth, life satisfaction is similar across all ages
We form close bonds with our spouses, especially if they share our beliefs, values and interests.
marriages are strongest when there are more positive than negative interactions
Twin studies showing that siblings are not attracted to one another's spouses suggest that chance encounters influence our levels of attraction
Our love for our children is even more profound
Marriage ages are on the rise: 27 for women and 29 for men
marrying later reduces risk of divorce
New research suggests 1 in 5 may never marry
Divorce rates hover around 50%
Cohabiting increases the risk of divorce
We all experience loss and grieving
Grief is particularly painful when it is unexpected
Death of a child is often the most challenging loss to overcome
People react to death in many different ways
Specific types of grieving rituals or grief counseling do not correlated with a lessening of grief or a shortening of the grieving process
Module 45: Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn
Developmental psychology
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Three Major Issues in Developmental Psych
Nature and nurture
Continuity and stages
Stability and change
Key Terms

Sensorimotor stage
Object permanence
Preoperational stage
Concrete operational stage
Formal operational stage
Theory of mind
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Social Development Theory
Lev Vygotsky

Stressed social component of cognitive development
Adults provide temporary scaffolds to enable a child's development
Unlike Piaget, believed that cognitive development varied from culture to culture
Zone of proximal development -

Key Terms:
Stranger anxiety
Critical period
Basic trust
BUT... Is it nature or nurture?
Are differences in attachment really a result of parenting styles or are they the result of biologically based differences in temperament (easy, difficult, or slow-to-warm-up babies)?
Module 49: Gender Development

Gender role
Gender identity
Social learning theory
Gender typing
Similarities and Differences
Higher suicide rates
Alcohol dependence
Higher rates of autism
Color blindness
Higher rates of antisocial personality disorder
9:1 murder arrests
Men more likely to use physical aggression
Higher paid
More assertive in communication
Larger friend groups, with more competition and less intimate discussion
Higher interest in computers and technology
Hold 80% of world government positions
Genetics (mostly)
Self-esteem (almost)
Girls enter puberty 2 years earlier
Life span 5 years longer
70% more fat/ 40% less muscle
5 inches shorter
Better sense of smell
Two times more likely to suffer depression
Ten times more likely to develop an eating disorder
Slightly more likely to commit acts of relational aggression (gossip)
More concered with making social connection
Girls play in smaller groups, less competitive, roll play real-life situation
Social connections - tend and befriend
Five times more likely to be primary caregivers
Nurture of Gender
Gender typing
- the acquisition of traditional male and female roles
Ideas about gender roles are shaped by culture - they are largely learned
Social learning theory
- We learn through observation and imitation. This behavior is reinforced or punished
Some people feel that there gender identity differs from their birth sex. They are described as
(this is distinct from sexual orientation)
Module 50 - Parents, Peers and Early Experiences

No key terms
Read on your own
Focus on interplay of nature/nurture
Look at the roles that various people in your life play
Unit 51:
Key Terms:
Key Terms
Social Identity
Emerging Adulthood
Module 53:
Sexual Development
Key Terms
X Chromosome
Y Chromosome
Primary Sex Characteristic
Secondary Sex Characteristic
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
Sexual Orientation
Prenatal Sexual Development
X from mother; X or Y from father determines sex
Sexual differentiation takes place at 7 week. Y chromosome triggers development of male sex organs and hormones
At 4-5 months, sex hormones bathe the child's brain and influence his or her development
Atypical hormone exposure or sensitivity may cause atypical fetal development designated as
There can also be chromosomal abnormalities that lead to a variety of intersex conditions
Around age 11 for girls 13 for boys
Starts with development of primary and secondary sex characteristics and ends with sexual maturation
This development varies from county to country due to
increased body fat
increased hormone mimicking chemicals
increased stress due to family disruption
STI rates increasing
Young women especially vulnerable due to lower rates of protective antibodies
STI rates amongst sexually active 14-19 year old females are around 39%
Condoms only offer limited protection (80% for HIV with an infected partner)
Teen Pregnancy
Compared to European teens, Americans have higher rates of STIs and pregnancy
minimal communication about birth control with parents
guilt related to sexual values
alcohol use (leads to reduction in condom use)
mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
Some predictive factors of sexual restraint
higher intelligence
religious engagement
presence of a father
participation in service learning programs
Environment and Sexual Orientation
Biology and Sexual Orientation
3% men, 1-2% women identify as exclusively homosexual
Depression rates and suicide attempts are higher amongst homosexual people due to bullying, harassment, and discrimination
Role of environment:
no connection to relationship with parents
not caused by hatred or fear of the opposite sex
not caused by levels of sex hormones in blood
most were not abused as children
most children raised by homosexual parents are straights
no known links to environment
Module 54: Adulthood
Key Terms
Cross-sectional Study
- People of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal Study
- The same people are researched and retested over time
Social Clock
- The culturally-preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

Occurs mostly in individualistic cultures
Believed language was important to cognitive development
Diana Baumrind's Parenting Styles
Early Adulthood
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