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Natural Disasters 1990 - 2014
Transcript of Natural Disasters 1990 - 2014
1990 - 2014
June - August 2003
France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Ireland were the countries who were affected most.
2003 was the hottest summer in Western Europe since 1540. This was the cause of several heath crises and a drought which led to a crop shortage in Southern Europe. The total death toll of this European Heat Wave was 70 000.
The cause of such a high death toll was mainly due to the lack of knowledge of what precautions to take during a heat wave, because this was uncommon in many countries including France. Rehydration was one of the precautions that was overlooked by many.
When: Saturday, Ocotber 8 2005
Where: the city of Muzaffarabad, Kashmir
What: An earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 struck Muzaffarabad, Kashmir. There were 147 aftershocks that badly affected neighbouring regions such as Northern Pakistan, Western China, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Over 100 000 people were killed, 138 000 injured and 3.5 million left homeless. Around US$ 5.4 billion from all over the world were donated to aid in rebuilding damaged areas.
Why: Kashmir sits on top of the area of which the Indian and the Eurasian continental plates collide. Extensive stress builds up and is released through earthquakes.
When: August 23 -August 30, 2005
Where: Bahamas, Florida, Cuba, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas
What: Hurricane Katrina formed over the Bahamas, and strengthened to its peak over the warm water of the Gulf of Mexico. With winds up to 280 km/h, it was the 7th most intense hurricane ever recorded. A total of 1833 people died due to the hurricane and following floods. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana was the most affected by Hurricane Katrina. The total cost to repair the damage that Katrina left behind was US$ 108 billion, making Katrina the costliest natural disaster recorded in US history.
When: Tuesday, January 12, 2010
Where: main epicenter - Léogâne, Haiti
What: A 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck near the capital of Haiti, Port-au-Prince. At least 52 aftershocks occurred with a higher magnitude than 4.2. The death toll was around 200 000 and more than 280 000 residential and commercial buildings collapsed or were severely damaged. The amount of poverty in this country makes the earthquake's effects more devestating. The UN and several other countries rushed to their aid, including Canada. Canadian troops are still in Haiti, helping rebuild their country. Canada and Haiti have strong ties because both countries share French as an official language.
When: March 12 - March 15, 1993
Where: Cuba, United States, Canada
What: A cyclonic storm formed over the Gulf of Mexico, travelled through Eastern US to Canada. At least 23 US states and most of Eastern Canada was badly affected. A total number of 318 people died and there were some areas that experienced snowdrifts as high a 11m. This storm caused major power outages for up to months. This was exceptionally unusual during the middle of March.
Mt. Pinatubo eruption
When: Monday, July 15 1991
Where: Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines
What: This eruption had a VEI of 6 was the first from this mountain in almost 500 years. It produced very quick avalanches of hot ash, gas and mudflow over the span of more than 160 kilometers. Around 847 people died mostly due to collapsing roofs. Agriculture was heavily affected in the Philippines, as 800 square kilometres of reforestation sites, rice patties and other farmland was destroyed. 800 000 cattle and livestock were killed, ruining the farmers' livelihoods. The agriculture costs alone were an estimated 6.25 billion pesos.
Why: Volcanic eruptions are caused when magma rises to the surface of the Earth which produces gas that builds up pressure in the mountain and eventually explodes.
When: October 22 - November 6, 1998
Where: Honduras, Nicaragua, South Florida
What: Hurricane Mitch contained winds up to 283 km/h. This hurricane also dropped historic amounts of rainfall up to almost 2 m and caused around 19 500 deaths in Central America and 2.5 million people were left homeless. The total costs of damage were US$6 billion. Many deaths were caused by flooding and mudslides.
Why: Strong eastern winds caused the '93 superstorm to be that much more powerful.
Why: Scientists believe that the cause of the endruance and strength of Hurricane Katrina was global warming because heat was its fuel.
Why: Haiti sits on top of both the North American and Caribbean plates. The fault between these two continental plates is where the earthquake occurred.
Why: Fueled by water vapour, hurricanes form in low pressure areas over warm water. Hurricane Mitch formed over the Gulf of Mexico.
When: Saturday, February 7, 2009
What: Consecutive bushfires were ignited during the worst conditions, with extreme dry weather across Victoria. More than 400 bushfires burning across the state, resulting in the highest number of deaths in Australia because of a bushfire with 173 deaths and 417 injured.
Where: Victoria, Australia
Why: The weather conditions in Victoria, Australia was extremely dry which is perfect for bushfires to ignite.
When: Monday, April 27 2008 - Saturday, May 3 2008
Where: Burma, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
What: Cyclone Nargis was a rare tropical cyclone that was deemed the worst cyclone from the North Indian Ocean Basin of all time. Approximately 400 000 people were killed and it left US$10 billion of damage behind. With winds up to 130 km/h, Nargis passed directly over the most densely populated areas and 95% of buildings were completely destroyed.
Why: Because Burma is ruled by an authoritative government, relief efforts were blocked, which led to a higher death toll.
When: Friday, March 11 2011
What: A 9.0 magnitude earthquake shook Japan for 6 minutes which triggered a tsunami with up to 40m waves. It was the fifth most powerful earthquake ever to hit the earth. Approximately 16 000 people died, 6000 more injured and more than 2000 people still missing to this day. 900 000 buildings were destroyed and up to US$300 billion of damage was left behind. 4.4 million people were left without electricity and 1.5 without available water. The tsunami also caused the cooling systems in many nuclear plants to fail which resulted in nuclear meltdown and radioactive material was leaked.
The "Great East Japan Earthquake" was the most important natural disaster since the 1990s because the repercussions are still endured to this day. The amount of damage caused by this 9.0 magnitude earthquake was catastrophic and caused humanitarian crises and a large economic impact with US$300 billion of damage. 11 106 aftershocks were triggered, some of which occurred 3 years later and around 2000 people are still missing as of September 7, 2014. Debris from the tsunami still washes up onto the shore of North America. The nuclear plant disaster caused by the tsunami leaked radioactive material into drinking water which is yet expected to take decades to fix and 300 tons of radioactive material still leaks into the Pacific Ocean every day. There have been no records immediate radiation related illnesses but long-term radiation related illnesses are to be expected in the next generation. The power of earthquake shifted the whole earth on its axis between 10 - 25 cm. The earthquake in Japan affected the whole world, that is why this event is the most important event since the end of the Cold War.