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Hot Air Balloon

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Camille Maison

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of Hot Air Balloon

Hot Air Balloon 18th Century France Bibliography By: Camille Maison Numerous attempts to invent a flying machine lead to the first successful method of manned air flight in the late 18th century, the hot air balloon, which not only provided an exceptional way to experience the view from above; it contributed to the advancement of technology, enhanced people's understanding of physics, and currently impacts modern day society. EARLY HISTORY The concept of flight is something that has been to of people's curiosity since nearly 400 B.C. People have admired bird's ability to sore among the clouds for centuries. The hot air balloon may have been the first successful manned flight, but there were several more simple inventions that lead up to it's existence. 400 B.C. The Chinese's discovery of the kite is what initially striked people's interest in flying. They have been important to the invention of flight and served as a door to balloons and gliders. The first kite was invented by Mo Di, a famous philosopher who lived on Mount Lu between 468 and 376 B.C. It is believed that he was inspired by the the wind sail and he studied it's movement in the wind.

Mo Di's ideas were later passed onto Gongshu Ban, who improved the design. He created a kite in the form of a magpie using bamboo and silk The Chinese Influence In 1485, Leonardo da Vinci studied the flight of birds. Humans don't have the weight or strength compatible for flying, therefore he sketched a device in which the aviator lies down on a plank and works two large wings using hand levers, foot pedals, and a system of pulleys. He named it the "Ornithopter." 450 years prior to the modern day helicopter, Leonardo designed his own version, in which two men would push each side of the shaft causing the blades to spin and supposedly fly. He took the idea from the old Chinese toy which used a screw and spiral to achieve lift. Leonardo was also the first to design the glider. To this day it is one of the only, complex flying devices that isn't motorized. The technology in modern day gliders allows glider pilots to sore for hours, using the shifting of their body weight to control it's altitude and direction. The same material in gliders is used in hot air balloons and parachutes. Believe it or not, Leonardo da Vinci was one of the greatest influences to air flight. He lived between 1452 and 1519, when society wasn't as technologically advanced. Most people merely recognize him as a talented artist, but he also made many significant contributions through his architect designs- none of which were actually created, but the physics behind them heavily contributed to that of the ones today. 15th Century Ornithopter 1670 Italy Francesco Lana de Terzi, Professor of science and math designed the "airship," which had a central mast and would have been steered like a sailboat. The copper spheres would be pumped to vacuum conditions so the air inside them would be lighter than the air outside- similar concept to the hot air balloon- allowing to lift it's own weight plus six passengers. Terzi feared the airship would give one a dangerous advantage to war and attack. He wrote: “God will never allow that such a machine be built…because everybody realizes that no city would be safe from raids… iron weights, fireballs and bombs could be hurdled from a great height". Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier were paper manufactures and are responsible for the birth of the hot air balloon. September 19, 1783 With King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette watching, a balloon made by the Montgolfier brothers flew for 8 minutes. The passengers were a sheep, rooster, and a duck. The balloon was made of paper and cloth and it used straw, chopped wool, and horse manure for inflation. The straw made the flame while the wool and manure created smoke and helped keep the flame low. Balloon Anatomy and Physics Over time, several changes were applied to it's construction in terms of safe flight and efficient fuel use, however the overall physics of it hasn't changed. The interaction between the balloon and the environment plays a significant role in it's behavior; hot air rises in cooler air because it is less dense, which is essentially what makes balloon flight possible. Over the last few centuries, it has been discovered that there is more than one way to create this natural reaction. Etienne Montgolfier was the first human passenger to fly his own creation; more significantly, he was the first human to lift off earth. The balloon was about 75 feet tall and 50 feet in diameter (about the size of modern day balloons). Paper and linen made up the envelope, while straw, manure, and wool were used as fuel. All balloons before the 1800s used the same fuel. October 15, 1783 Civil Wars During the 19th and 20th century, balloons were used in the civil wars, including World War two and three, to spy behind enemy lines and drop bombs. Gas was used to fuel military balloons. Thaddeus Lowe created a portable gas generating device to make it more efficient. It consisted of a wooden tank mounted on a horse wagon filled with water and iron fillings. This mixture created hydrogen gas when sulfuric acid was added. The Japanese Balloon Bombs were programmed to release hydrogen once they reached 38,000 and drop heavy, sand-filled bags if they dropped below 30,000 feet. The balloon is called the envelope and the material attached to it, which is closest to the burner, is called the skirt. The envelope is generally made of nylon (same material in parachutes) and the skirt is made of a fire-resistant material known as Nomex. The material used at the top of the envelope is called "Hyperlast." It is a stronger form of nylon, woven from heavy yarn to increase durability and protect the balloon from damage. Modern Day Montgolfier Balloon Throughout history, balloon envelopes have been made of paper, rubber, fabric, and various plastics. Most modern day balloons are made of nylon; balloon envelopes made of this material have a limited heating temperature of 250 degrees, allowing it to operate for 400-500 hours before it needs to be replaced. The temperature at which the balloon is inflated depends on the atmospheric temperature; the colder it is outside, the less heat is required to create buoyancy, or "lift." The propane tanks contain the liquid propane used for fuel and inflation. Propane is composed of hydrocarbons which is highly flammable when paired with oxygen. In addition, the tanks have a valve to control how much fuel is being fed to the burners. The liquid propane traveling to the burners is a fairly simple process. The propane flows through the hoses to the heating coil, which is a length of steel tubing around the burner, where the liquid turns to gas. The propane and air mixture is ignited by a small gas flame that is used to ignite powerful gas burners, called a pilot light, directing the flame into the opening of the envelope. The burners are hooked to the basket underneath the balloon mouth. Nylon and Buoyancy Consequences: Hybrid Balloon Jean-Francois Pilatre de Roziere's hybrid balloon utilized both non-heated lifting gas, such as helium and hydrogen, and heated lifting gas, as used in the Montgolfier balloon. The first one was built in 1785 in attempt to cross the English Channel; it deflated and as a result, helium is now used instead of hydrogen. Hybrid balloons are often used for long flights since they use less fuel then Montgolfier balloons. Among the three different types of hot air balloons, the Montgolfier Balloon is the most common. It uses 100% heated air from fossil fuels to lift it. Solar Balloon Dominic Michaelis built the first solar powered balloon. The air inside the balloon is heated by the sun's radiation. In order to capture enough heat, the envelope is constructed of black material. They are seldom used due to the higher risk involved. Unexpected clouds would cause it to cool and descend rapidly. The Discovery of Air Flight Just like any gas-fueled device, it may bring joy to people in several ways, however it doesn't do justice for the ecosystem. Due to their immense size and weight, tremendous power is needed to lift them off the ground, which requires a tremendous amount of fuel. The 8-foot flame shooting into the balloon adds heat at the rate of 12 million BTU's per hour (enough to heat 120 three-bedroom homes comfortably). Society sacrifices an abundance of propane for hot air balloons, which releases harmful gases into the air. The solar-powered balloon doesn't carry that burden, but it isn't used as often due to slight unpredictability with the weather. What are the risks with ballooning? Is it a dangerous activity? Two main factors affect safety and they are: equipment durability and piloting experience. Saftey CAUSES TO BALLOON FAILURE Lightning strikes, power line collisions, and gas leakages are the hugest threats to hot air balloons, considering they can ignite the propane. They were the cause to nearly all previous balloon crashes. Various fatalities occurring within the last few decades were recorded, although the most recent occurrence turned out to be one of the most deadliest balloon flight accidents in history. February 26, 2013 7:30am Luxor, Egypt Most disastrous hot air balloon crash in history, killing 19 tourists. The balloon caught fire 1,000 feet up in the air due to a gas leakage and plunged to ground.

WATCH>> Solution? Propane's flammable characteristics are essentially what creates the potential hazards of ballooning. Making balloon travel less prone to explosion would require using a fuel source that isn't flammable. Unfortunately, that type of substance isn't accessible these days; therefore, it is crucial that pilots are highly cautious to prevent accidents. Environmentally Socially Despite it's negative effects on the ecosystem, it adds enjoyment to the lives of many people. It plays a role in shaping culture; some people experience it for special occasion and some who are actively involved in it as a hobby and take it seriously. It provides an exceptional way for people to view the world from above and is able to get much closer to landscapes (such a mountains) than an airplanes. Airplanes also fly at much higher altitudes, so rarely do they serve an as an obstacle for balloon path. What impact does the hot air balloon have on society and the environment as a whole? What risks are involved? Since it is merely used for recreation and tourism, it doesn't play a role in politics; although, just like every invention, it uses resources and has an effect on certain cultures. Safer than other ways of flight? Every activity has risk involved; despite the balloon accidents that have occurred, it is still considered one of the safest forms of flight. How? Compared to an airplane, it is safer in several ways. An airplane is build for speed, whereas the balloon is built to float If you run out of fuel in a hot air balloon, it's not a crash landing considering you are under a colossal parachute. As opposed to an airplane, where it would go soaring to the ground. Secondly, there are less things that can go wrong because the balloons construction is much more simple. Roughly 30 gallons of propane per hour is used during flight. Ballooning has become increasingly popular over time and today there are numerous manufactures all over the world. In addition to the pilots, they too play an important role in hot air balloon safety. These companies are responsible for producing quality materials to increase durability and balloon maintenance. photo credit: http://honey-mommy.blogspot.com photo credit: http://airdynamics.co.uk photo credit: http://www.sacu.org photo credit: http://leonardodavinci.net photo credit: http://en.wikipedia.org photo credit:
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http://science.howstuffworks.com Positive & Negative Pilots are responsible for being fully equipped with operating the balloon, recognizing the sky's conditions, knowing how it interacts with the atmosphere, and avoiding dangers. Anything that attributes to the balloon or affects its flight must be closely evaluated. Since operating a hot air balloon involves special skills, a balloon pilot license is required before legal flight, which is obtained through hot air balloon pilot school. Incidents in the past have revealed the potential dangers of hot air balloons. Between the years of 1993 and 1997, 99 accidents were reported; 92 of them involving minor or major injuries and 7 causing death. photo credit: http://celebpictu.com, http://tokyotimes.com, http://commons.wikimedia.org http://abc.net.au http://toledoblade.com http://youtube.com Manufacturing http://wickerbasketballooncenter.com http://eballoon.org Albuquerque Balloon Fiesta The largest, well-known hot air ballooning event in the world. First gathering consisted of 13 balloons; today, it contains over 700 balloons. http://www.balloonfiesta.com/pilots-and-crew/special-shapes-directory Abedine, Castillo, Ahmed Saad, Hamdi Alkhshali and Adam Makary. "Deadliest Balloon
Crash in Decades Kills 19 in Egypt." Cable News Network (2013), www.cnn.com (accessed May 5, 2013). Brown, Dick. "A Balloon That Rides on Sunbeams." Sunstat
(Albuquerque), April, 1978. Egypt Balloon Crash Video: 19 Tourists Dead in
Fiery Hot Air Balloon Accident -Caught on Tape. N.d. ABC News. YouTube, 26 Feb. 2013. Web. 05 May 2013. Gillispie, Charles Coulston. 1983. The Montgolfier brothers and the
invention of aviation, 1783-1784: with a word on the importance of ballooning for the science of heat and the art of building railroads. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Heppenheimer, T. A. Turbulent Skies: The History of
Commercial Aviation. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1995. O'Catherine, Aileen. "Balloon Fiesta Facts - Facts About the
Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta." About.com Albuquerque. Accessed May 8, 2013. Yajima, Nobuyuki. 2009. Scientific ballooning
technology and applications of exploration balloons floating in the stratosphere and the atmospheres of other planets. New York: Springer. photo: http://en.wikipedia.org
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