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French Neoclassical Theatre Presentation

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on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of French Neoclassical Theatre Presentation

Neoclassical French Theatre
Notable Rulers
War
French Wars of Religion
Between Catholics and Protestants
Civil war
Catholics and Huguenots
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catholics killed and raided homes of Huguenots
Estimate of 10,000+ deaths
Théâtre
Confrérie de la Passion
a confraternity that held monopoly on theatre in Paris
Moral tone and displayes of erudition, rather than suspense or psychological motivation, were important.
Verisimilitude and Unity of Time, Place, and Action emphasized
Comedy
never
mixed with tragedy
Dialogue commonly in rhyming couplets
Prohibited: chorus, soliloquy, and deus ex machina
Set
One-point-perspective
Typically very neutral
Critics
Cardinal Richelieu
King Louis XIII's chief minister 1624-1642
Patronage of the arts
Reduced power of nobility to transform France into centralized state
Oversaw construction of his palace, Palais Cardinal
1500-1725
A revival of classic Roman and Greek ideals, styles, and arts
Elements of the medieval era still present
Overall
Theatre Spaces
Hôtel de Bourgogne
Cardinal Richelieu's palace
First theatre in France with permanent proscenium arch
Only for invited guests so not same arrangement used in public theatres
Palais Cardinal
Made for marriage of Louis XIV
Petit Bourbon torn down and Salle des Machines added to wing of Tuileries Palace
Only 52 feet wide but 232 feet long
140 feet of that was for the stage itself
(Hall of Machines)
First permanent theatre in Paris
Total capacity: 1600
Theatre least concerned with spectacle
Most important theatre up to 1700s
Replaced by a leather market in 1784
Salle des Machines
First Théâtre de Marais converted from a tennis court in 1634
Burned in 1644 and immediately reconstructed
Capacity: 1500
Stadium-like seating
Théâtre de Marais
Playwrights
Acting
Actors commonly used stage names
"Acting companies organized under sharing plan, where both shareholders and pensionnaires being contractually obliged to perform minor roles alongside the actors of the period." (Jones et al.)
Eight-twelve performers in each troupe
Little rehearsal time for a performance
Actors were forbidden to refuse a role.
French tragedian
Le Cid not received well at first
Stopped writing for a period of time before embracing Neoclassical ideals
Pierre Corneille
Considered one of the greatest masters of comedy
Actor and Playwright
Suffered from TB
Died right after performance
Moliere
French dramatist
Primarily tragedies
Psychological insight in plays
Passionate characters
Jean Raccine
Tennis Courts
Works Cited
Jones, Kurtis, Kyrstin Hiltz, Nathan Iles, and Lisa Rao.
"French Neoclassicism." Prezi.com. Prezi Inc., 15 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. <http://prezi.com/l46wh6pdziv8/french-neoclassicism/>.
Costumes
A petition in 1614 had rules about wearing jewels and silk among the first and middle classes
Women
Slashing on bodice and sleeves
Triangle stomacher and corset
Farthingale transformed
Men
Doublets with rounded or slightly pointed waists
Standing collars
Ruffs round
or
soft and falling
Heroes commonly wore expensive 'Roman' garb
Was married to Henri II
Ruled as Queen Regent for three of her sons who became King in her lifetime
Was fond of festivals of all sorts
Is commonly blamed for the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine de' Medici
Reigned 1547-1559
Second son of Francis I
Died after participating in a tournament, leaving young sons to rule
Mistress: Diane de Poitiers
Supported prosecution during reign of Huguenots
Henri II
Francis I
"The Sun King"
Ruled for over 72 years
Patronage of the arts
Supported the "Académie Française"
Cultivated the building of the Palace of Versailles
Renovated and improved the Louvre
Loved Ballet
Frequently danced in court
Revoked Edict of Nantes with Edict of Fontainebleau
Protestants lost freedom again
Louis XIV
Reigned 1515-1547
Initiated the French Renaissance
Promoted standardized French language
Began tolerant of Protestants before he turned to prosecuting them
The French Academy
(L'Académie française)
Highest authority on French language even today
Fostered by Cardinal Richelieu
40 members
Most famous works:
Le Misanthrope (The Misanthrope)
L'École des Femmes (The School for Wives)
Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur (Tartuffe or the Hypocrite)
L'Avare (The Miser)
Le Malade Imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid)
Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman)
Most famous works:
Phèdre
Andromaque
Athalie
Most famous plys:
Le Cid
Full transcript