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water crisis in africa

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Moin Virani

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of water crisis in africa

The Water Crisis in Africa.
Global Water Supply
Only 3% of water on Earth is fresh consumable water, rest is salt water.
70% of that is in the form of ice and only 30% is in the form of water.
Which means less than 1% of the water is readily accessible.
1.1 billion people do not have access to clean water.
Inaccessibility to clean water traps people in a lifetime of poverty, disease, and early death.
Why focus on Africa?
- Roughly 40% of Africans, mostly the rural poor, will not get access to clean water any time soon.
- Every year, dirty water kills an estimated 750,000 African children under the age of five.
- In Sub-Saharan Africa, 43 % of children drink unsafe water and one in five die before their fifth birthday.
- Recent droughts in the Sahel and Horn of Africa have forced millions of Africans to flee their ancestral lands in search of food.
(http://www.catsg.org/cheetah/07_map-centre/7_1_entire-range/thematic-maps/annual_rainfall_Africa.gif)
Africa has huge amounts of fresh water resources, but are highly concentrated
50% of total surface water is concentrated in Congo River Basin
75% of Africans get their drinking water from groundwater
Where is the water?
Democratic Republic of Congo has about 250 000 m3/capita/year, whereas Burundi has about 840 m3/capita/year
Approximately 25% of the African population is under water stress (1000-1500 m3/capita/year)
As of 1995, 10 of 54 African countries were in water scarcity situation (<1000 m3/capita/year)
Unsustainable with urbanization and population growth
Projections state by 2025 14 African countries will suffer from water scarcity, and 11 under water stress
Where is the water?
(http://sniperassasinator101.edublogs.org/files/2010/03/Wespionage_EssentialTruthsAboutWater.jpg)
Despite the overall availability of water, does not mean it’s safe…
(World Health Organization, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/afro_highlight_en.pdf )
WASH - Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Is the water safe?
(World Health Organization, 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf )
WASH vs Other Risks
Diarrhoeal diseases:
- Pathogens (bacteria, viruses or protista) entering the body orally, ultimately causing diarrhoea
- Includes severe diseases such as cholera, typhoid and dysentery
- 88% of all cases of diarrhoea associated with poor WASH
Intestinal Nematode Infections:
- Various species of roundworms entering the body orally
- Can cause diarrhoea and anemia
Schistosomiasis
- Various species of flatworms entering the body dermally
- Worms propagate in aquatic snails
Can cause anemia
All of these are associated with faecal-oral pathways
Diseases related to WASH
(World Health Organization, 2008. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596435_eng.pdf )
This demonstrates how poor sanitation and hygiene practices affect water quality and ultimately human health
Faecal-Oral Pathways
(World Health Organization, 2008. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596435_eng.pdf )
DALY (disability-adjusted life year) – Years of healthy living lost due to premature death or disability
Diseases related to WASH
(World Health Organization, 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf )
Underweight is an overarching consequence of malnutrition and frequent disease
Worldwide Distribution of Underweight
About 50% of malnutrition/underweight cases are associated with repeated diarrhoea or intestinal nematode infections from poor WASH quality
About 35% of childhood mortality due to malnutrition/underweight
Individuals are significantly more susceptible to other infectious diseases, and less likely to fully recover
Underweight/Malnutrition
(World Health Organization, 2008. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596435_eng.pdf )
DALY (disability-adjusted life year) – Years of healthy living lost due to premature death or disability
Diseases related to WASH
Lymphatic filariasis, malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis associated with infection from mosquitoes, who breed in stagnant water bodies
- Could be associated with irrigation practices
Trachoma:
- Infectious disease that can cause blindness
- Associated with poor hygiene and sanitation practices
Diseases related to WASH
(World Health Organization, 2008. Retrieved from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596435_eng.pdf )
DALY (disability-adjusted life year) – Years of healthy living lost due to premature death or disability
Diseases related to WASH
(World Health Organization, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/afro_highlight_en.pdf )
Sub-Saharan urban areas are around 55% using improved sanitation facilities and 82% using improved drinking-water sources
Urban areas only account for one third of the population
Where is the water safe?
“Improved Sanitation Facilities” is a loose term, but in this case mean facilities that reduce the chance of human contact with waste and reduce the chance of direct exposure to surface or ground water
“Improved Drinking-Water Sources” in the bare minimum means a drinking-water source protected from faecal contamination
Where is the water safe?
Moin Virani
Stephen McCaughey
Priya Gajaria

Water Pollution Prevention
More cost-effective to prevent pollution rather than treating the symptoms of pollution

We should focus on waste water minimization, recycling of waste products, etc.

However, in many countries, water pollution occurs from diffuse sources

In these countries, the principle of “Best environmental practice" should be applied
Prevention

The costs of pollution prevention, control, and reduction measures are borne by the polluter

Aimed at affecting behaviour by encouraging and inducing behaviour that puts less strain on the environment

Hard to keep a good balance
The Polluter-Pays-Principle

Taking action to prevent contaminants from reaching water sources

Multi-barrier approach
Source water protection
Drinking water treatment
Drinking water distribution system
Source Water Protection

Milennium development goal: halving the number of people with no access to safe water by 2015

Low and High technologies

Disinfection at point of use

Improved water supply and sanitation
WHO’s Health Report - 2002
World Health Organization. (2002). [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf
AFR-D: Sub-Saharan African Region- mortality strata: high child, high adult
EMR-D: Eastern Mediterranean Region- mortality strata: high child, high adult

Hand-washing: considerable health benefits and cost-effective

Developing countries: disinfection at point of use

Long-term goal of developing countries: piped water and sewage services
Comparison of Interventions
Prüss-Üstün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J. Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2008.
Global Health Observatory- Water, sanitation and hygiene. (2012). [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/gho/phe/water_sanitation/en/index.html
Population using improved drinking-water sources (%)
Urban, 2010









World is on track to meet MDG, yet still 783 million people lacked improved sources of drinking water in 2010
Global Health Observatory- Water, sanitation and hygiene. (2012). [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/gho/phe/water_sanitation/en/index.html
Population using improved sanitation facilities (%) Urban, 2012
Global Health Observatory- Water, sanitation and hygiene. (2012). [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/gho/phe/water_sanitation/en/index.html
Public Health and Environment (PHE): water, sanitation and hygiene. Number of deaths (2004), Total
Infrastructurenew.ws. “South African solution for Gabon’s water pollution crisis.” (May 17, 2012). [Online]. Available: http://www.infrastructurene.ws/2012/05/17/south-african-solution-to-solve-gabons-water-pollution-crisis/
http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=gabon,+africa&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1680&bih=959&tbm=isch&tbnid=6UTTZrJ90RlYRM:&imgrefurl=http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/ga.htm&docid=sMJoHI9iU1kF5M&imgurl=http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/gaafrica.gif&w=320&h=350&ei=1ZaeUO2IOKei2wWs7YGoBg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=2&sig=106800499461220169660&page=1&tbnh=148&tbnw=135&start=0&ndsp=40&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:99&tx=37&ty=58
News report- May 17th, 2012
Just need a tap in their homes
Intaka Tech.
3 water treatment plants were installed
Safe Drinking Water in Gabon

Young people of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Project's aim: to reduce infectious diseases and death from the consumption of polluted water

To date: the project has minimized the dumping of waste into streams, and has helped educate families

Their approach: to educate, inform, and motivate the public
Grassroots Participation and Management of Rural Water-Related Environmental Problems
TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO THE WATER CRISIS?
Solutions currently available:
- Sanitation and Filtration
- Foreign Aid
- Desalinization
- Rain Catchment
- Well Building
- Maintenance & Education
Flaws of Conventional Solutions
- More energy consumption
- Costly and time consuming
- Too late once Foreign Aid is received
- Best hand filters are only capable of filtering down to about 200 nm.
HOW BIG IS THE SMALEST VIRUS?
1 nanometer = 1.0 × 10-9 meters
The Lifesaver Bottle
- Worlds first Ultra Filtration System that has pores of only 15 nm.
- 99.99% virus and bacteria retention
- Can purify upto 6000 liters of water.
- Activated carbon reduces chemical residues, pesticides, endocrine disrupting compounds, medical residues and heavy metals.
Humanitarian Entrepreneurship
THE LIFESTRAW: Is a mobile personal filtration system containing filters that make contaminated water drinkable.
THE WATER ATM: A franchised water treatment facilities that leverage local cellular networks to remotely keep track of quality and quantity. In remote areas where clean water is scarce, Sarvajal's water-dispensing ATMs provide a cheap solution.
2.5 billion people still lacked access to improved sanitation in 2010
Water, sanitation and hygiene were responsible for 1.9 million deaths from diarrhoeal disease in 2004
“Water is an astonishingly complex and subtle force in an economy. It is the single constraint on the expansion of every city, and bankers and corporate executives have cited it as the only natural limit to economic growth.”

- Margaret Catley-Carlson, Vice-Chair, World Economic Forum
References:

- IPCC 4th Assessment report, Chapter 9: Africa (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
- UN Water/Africa (n.d.). The Africa Water Vision for 2025: Equitable and Sustainable use of water for socioeconomic development
- World Health Organization (2002). The World Health Report 2002. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf
- Pan Africa Chemistry Network (March 2010). Africa’s Water Quality. Retrieved from: http://www.rsc.org/images/RSC_PACN_Water_Report_tcm18-176914.pdf
- WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (n.d.). Types of drinking-water sources and sanitation. Retrieved from http://www.wssinfo.org/definitions-methods/watsan-categories/
- Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. (2009, April 15). [Online]. Available: http://www.ccme.ca/sourcetotap/mba.html
- World Health Organization. (2002). [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf
- Prüss-Üstün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J. Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2008.
- Infrastructurenew.ws. “South African solution for Gabon’s water pollution crisis.” (May 17, 2012). [Online]. Available: http://www.infrastructurene.ws/2012/05/17/south-african-solution-to-solve-gabons-water-pollution-crisis/
- GrassRoots & Shoiots Nigeria. [Online]. Available: http://www.freewebs.com/grassrootsnshoots/
Charity: Water. (2006). [Online]. Available: http://www.charitywater.org/whywater/
- Global Health Observatory- Water, sanitation and hygiene. (2012). [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/gho/phe/water_sanitation/en/index.html
- The LifeStraw: http://www.vestergaard-frandsen.com/our-passion/about-us
- The Lifesaver Bottle: http://www.lifesaversystems.com/
- The Water ATM: http://www.fastcompany.com/1782224/solar-powered-water-atms-provide-clean-drinking-water-thirsty
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