Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Structuralism

No description
by

Juli Blome

on 23 November 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Structuralism

Structuralism
The Linguistic Sign
Saussure vs. Ogden&Richards
Linguistic Schools
based on Structuralism
Prague School: functionalism
Nikolai Trubetzkoy, Roman Jakobson
Distinction of phonetics and phonology
Paris School
Lucien Tensière, André Martinet
Valency theory, dependence grammar
American functionalism/distributionalsim
Noam Chomsky
Generative transformational grammar
Copenhagen school
Viggo Brøndal, Louis Hjelshelv
Semiotics, semiology
Image by goodtextures: http://fav.me/d2he3r8
Bilateral
Bi-functional
Linear
Arbitrary
signifier
'Cours de Linguistique Générale'
Lecture given in Geneva 1907-1911
Book published 1916
signified
Ferdinand
de Saussure

Langue as a System
Langage = Langue and Parole
Langage: speech or ability to speak
Langue: system of Rules --> grammar
Parole: realization of rules --> utterances
Diachronic and Synchronic
Diachronic
Examines language change over time
Synchronic
Examines language at one specific point of time

Examples:
Diachronic: the development of the expression "knight"
O.E. cniht "boy, youth; servant, attendant"
"to make a knight of (someone)," early 13c
Rank of nobility in 15c --> knight
Synchronic: examine Shakespeare's works
signifier/ image acoustique
signified/concept
Characteristics of the Linguistic Sign
Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic
Langue and Parole
Diachronic and Synchronic
Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic
Signifier and Signified
Comparative-historical tradition
Diachronic
Studied Sanskrit
Greek and Latin origins of expressions
Ogden&Richards
Words, as every one now knows, 'mean' nothing by themselves [...] It is only when a thinker makes use of them that they stand for anything, or, in one sense, have 'meaning.' They are instruments. But besides this referential use[...] words have only functions which may be grouped together.(Ogden&Richards, 9f)

This may be illustrated by a diagram [...] Between a thought and a symbol causal relations hold. When we speak, the symbolism we employ is caused partly by the reference we are making and partly by social and psychological factors - the purpose for which we are making the reference, the proposed effect of the symbols on other persons, and our own attitude. When we hear what is said, the symbols both cause us to perform an act of reference and to assume an attitude which will, according to circumstances, be more or less similar to the act and the attitude of the speaker. (Ogden&Richards, 10f)

Between the Thought and the Referent there is also a relation; more or less direct [colours] or indirect[Napoleon]. (Ogden&Richards,11)
Meaning arises from the differences between signifiers
Syntagmatic
relations:
Combination of lexemes into phrases/sentences
→ Positioning of lexemes
Paradigmatic
relations (associative relations):
Interchange of lexemes according to syntactical rules
--> Substitution of lexemes
/ / vs. [ ]
Chess game
Neogrammarians (Junggrammatiker)
Full transcript