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Portugal Energy Policy by Ben Williams
Transcript of Portugal Energy Policy by Ben Williams
Texas Tech University
WE 5320 Renewable Energy Policy Overview of
Portugal Ranked 80th in Population with 10,800,000
25% currently living in the captital, Lisbon
Currently in a financial crisis since 2008
16.9% unemployment rate and increasing
(US is currently at 7.7% and decreasing)
GDP: $245 billion
Lowest GDP per capita in Western Europe
Among the 20 most visited countries in the world
with tourism contribuing about 5% of the GDP Industrial Machinery
and Electronics Textiles Transportation Mineral Products Plastics Chemicals Foodstuff Animals Agriculture Wood Metals Stone/Glass Misc Origins of Portugal Imports Imports continue to increase in Portugal which has a negative impact on the GDP.
Portugal is heavily dependent on their neighbor, Spain for various resources and support, including energy.
There are currently plans to reduce the reliance of imports, especially fossil fuels such as petroleum products. References http://atlas.media.mit.edu/
http://www.solarserver.com/solar-magazine/solar-news/current/2013/kw10/portugal-solar-pv-market-doubles-in-2012.html Portugal is bordered by Spain and Atlantic Ocean, isolating it from the rest of Europe
Slightly larger than the state of Maine with 35,556 square miles
Over 1,100 miles of coastline
Natural resources: fish, cork, iron ore, copper, zinc, silver, gold, etc. Portugal's Geography Portugal's Dependence on Spain $120 mil/yr $100 mil/yr Spain is the only country electrically tied to Portugal.
In 2012 Portugal imported approx 4.77 billion kWh and exported 2.82 billion kWh bringing the country to a net import of 1.95 billion kWh.
Portugal currently has ambitious plans to become a net Electricity exporter to Spain.
Final energy consumption in Portugal has increased dramatically since 1990, an 80% increase since the 90’s, mainly due to increases in the consumption of the transport, industrial and commercial sectors and, although electricity generation has also increased significantly in the last 20 years, Portugal is still highly dependent on external energy suppliers, with 74.6% of its primary energy being imported in 2010 Electricity
in Portugal Hydro
22% Cogeneration & Biomass
>1% Fossil Fuels
39% Portugal is home to the first commercial wave farm in 2006, the Aguçadoura Wave Farm. Designed to use three Pelamis wave energy converters to capture the motion of the ocean surface waves into electricity. Installed peak capacity of 2.25MW, enough to meet the average electricity demand of more than 1,500 Portuguese homes. Energy is produced when each component moves several rams linked between the components by compressing hydraulic fluid through a generator then back into the ram. In November 2008, Pelamis hit technical problems and had to tow the devices into shore. The technical problems were eventually fixed, but by then financial crisis was raging throughout the world. The owner of the devices, energy services company, Babcock & Brown, decided not to redeploy the devices and looked for ways to sell them. The company responsible for designing the machines, Pelamis, is now focusing efforts on the new P2 machine, which is undergoing tests in Scotland since 2010. References Solar Energy Hope you enjoyed this presentation! - Ben Williams Wave
Power $$$ United States All renewable energy (including large hydro) in Portugal made up approx 60% of the country's electricity generation in 2011 Fossil - 0 MW
Hydro - 414 MW
Wind - 375 MW
Solar - 29 MW
Cogen/Bio - 172MW Increases from 2010 to 2011: Installed Capacity: Fossil - 7407 MW
Hydro - 5392 MW
Wind - 4081 MW
Solar - 152 MW
Cogeneration - 1627 MW
Biomass - 241 MW Not necessarily "renewable" but can come from renewable sources such as waste. The growing installed capacity of renewables over the years Key: GH - large hydro; PE - wind farms;
PCH - small hydro; Ondas - wave Wind will soon beat hydro! Renewables have increased from 3% of the electricity mix in 2001 to 25% in 2011
large hydro is not included with renewables
Fossil fuels have fallen from over 60% in 2001 to under 40% in 2011 Hydroelectricity Portugal gets a large portion of electricity from hydroelectrical sources.
However, several international organizations like the Hydropower Reform Coalition, World Commission on Dams, and the World Conservation Union have disapproved of large dams, stating they are not considered "clean" or "renewable" sources due to the environmental impacts.
So, Portugal places the majority of their hydro power, mostly large dams, under Ordinary Regime. Wave power and run-of-the-river power are listed under Special Regime. NES 2020, establishes a 150 MW target for the installed solar power capacity by 2020 and states that photovoltaics and concentrated solar power will be considered in this growth. There hasn't been much growth in solar even though there has been 3,000 connection requests a few years ago since the national target is already met. The south enjoys up to 300 sunny days a year, making it an ideal location for solar. Wave power falls under the special regime, aka small hydro. Total 2012 install solar capacity is over 225 MW. National Energy Efficiency
Action Plan Energy Policy NEEAP NAtional Energy Strategy 2020 (NES 2020) Recommendations Support Mechanisms Wind Energy In 2010, Portugal generated 9.024 TWh of wind energy, or 17% of its total production, putting it above Spain. Last year saw the first WindFloat installed off Portugal shore, a offshore wind turbine employing a 2 MW Vestas-80 turbine combined with a floating platform that is anchored to concrete footings. There is an additional 27 MW secured by Energias de Portugal to be installed shortly this year. Aguçadoura Wind Floating Turbine Portugal is ranked the 10th in wind power worldwide Renewables currently make up 19% of total energy consumption The goal is to be 100% renewable Sets a final energy consumption reduction target of 10%, by 2015.
Savings will be achieved by reducing,
39% from transportation
30% from industry
27% from households and service A continuation of the NEEAP with final goals to reduce energy consumption of 20% by 2020.
Focuses on transiting to renewable sources:
31% of final energy consumption (ie. transportation)
60% of power consumption (includes large hydro) "renewables" Methods used to bring about change: "bad" stuff Pursue support schemes for renewable energy sources while considering cost-effectiveness of strategy applied.
Encourage stakeholders to be more involved in renewable energy development
Add a research and development policy for renewable energy technology with clear priorities and sufficient funding with a goal of large-scale deployment of renewable energy.
Co-ordinate with transport section to achieve renewable fuel source implementations. Feed-in Tariffs Renewable Sources
Hydro Wind Ocean Solar Renewable Fuels for Transport Solar Heating and Cooling Feed-in Tariffs The formula for calculation of the feed in tariffs takes in account the technology, the environmental aspects, and the inflation rate through the index of prices to the consumer. The FITs are one of the largest influencing agents in the policy of encouraging renewables. The FITs have immense increases the installed wind capacity of Portugal. Municipalities in which a wind farm is located, will automatically benefit from the remuneration the operator of the wind project receives.
This further encourages renewable development because, municipalities often respond with support towards wind projects within their territory since they receive 2.5% of the remuneration. Wind resource is larger in the interior and in the northern part of the country while the consuming areas are generally on the west coast. Renewable Fuels for Transportation Portugal has no production plans for bioethanol but has mandates for blending of biodiesel at 7%
Portugal law protects the national produce against usage in certain things within the country. However, the country's soil and climatic conditions make it rather efficient at producing bioethanol. Some companies export gasoline with blended bioethanol that matches other countries.
Tax incentives and production quotas for biodiesel have benefited companies since the adoption of the NEEAP Solar Heating and Cooling The NES includes the Solar Hot Water for Portugal Programme (AWSpP) which established a goal of one million square meters of solar thermal collectors by 2010. However, due to lack of interest in the market, the target has been moved to 2015 Emissions Among the lowest emissions compared to the Europe nations. Continues to decline due to changes in fuel sources, most notably from electricity and biofuels. Future of Portugal... Much of the future of policy development and enforcement in Portugal is dependent on the economic situation.
Still suffering from a financial crisis since 2008, the Portuguese government had negotiated in 2011, a $102 billion dollar bailout with the EU and the International Monetary Fund with agreements to reduce the budget deficit from 9.1% in 2011 to 3% by the end of this year.
Portugal has already started to reject many renewable licensing requests, mostly in the micro-generation sector.
It is uncertain if Portugal will be able to continue promoting renewables and offering incentives to developers and investors.
The immediate future of energy in Portugal is unpredictable.