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Artificial Selection of Plants by selective breeding

Done by: Amelia, Samantha, Sharmaine, Teri :)
by

Amelia LJY

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Artificial Selection of Plants by selective breeding

What is Artificial Selection? Examples of Artificial selection: CORNS! Examples of Artificial selection: WILD MUSTARD PLANT Artificial Selection of plants: Sunflowers Advantages Artificial selection is the procedure of intentionally breeding specific individuals in order for their offspring to have their favourable traits.
Crops are chosen for specific traits including survival, such as the ability to survive in extreme weather, protection from insects and herbivores, and the ability to survive in drought or flooding.
Additional traits are more beneficial to humans, such as the taste, edibility, size, texture, and juiciness. Farmers noticed that not all plants were the same.
Some plants may have grown larger than others, some tasted better or were easier to grind.
The farmers saved corn from plants with desirable characteristics and planted them for the next season's harvest. Farmers have cultivated numerous crops from the wild mustard by artificially selecting them for certain attributes.

The dramatic results of artificial selection that can be seen in the wild mustard plant(brassica);

six different vegetables – kale, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, kohlrabi, cabbage, and cauliflower. They all have Brassica oleracea as their single common ancestor. 1. Farmers and breeders will get better business. Farmers will be able to produce bigger and better plants, while breeders will be able to create new types of animals.
2. Can create stronger and faster animals and unlimited to the options of artificial selection, meaning you can combine whatever traits you want from any plant or animals and create new organisms.
3. Able to produce crops with higher yield, shorter harvest time.
4. New crops may have higher resistance to pest and diseases. The crops that contain these traits are bred with each other, and individuals without the traits eventually die off.
Selectively bred crops evolve to become foods that are most desirable by humans through the method of artificial selection.
Selective breeding uses plants that exhibit the most desirable traits to pollinate for seed.
Hybridization is the process by which a breeder combines desirable traits from two or more varieties to produce a plant that will be self-pollinated. Artificial Selection of Plants
by Selective Breeding Examples of Artificial selection: CORNS! Through the study of genetics, corn's wild ancestor is a grass called teosinte.
Teosinte doesn't look much like maize. But at the DNA level, the two are surprisingly alike.
They have the same number of chromosomes and a remarkably similar arrangement of genes.
In fact, teosinte can cross-breed with modern maize varieties to form maize-teosinte hybrids that can go on to reproduce naturally. teosinte parent(left) x maize parent(right) = hyprid offspring Examples of Artificial selection: CORNS! Later changes in the evolution of modern maize involved many genes (perhaps thousands) with small effects. These minor changes include the following:

Types and amounts of starch production
Ability to grow in different climates and types of soil
Length and number of corn rows
corn size, shape, and color
Resistance to pests Local groups of farmers selected for characteristics that they preferred and that worked best in their particular environment. Over thousands of years, selective breeding generated the broad diversity of corn varieties that are still grown around the world today. Humans plant only the plump teosinte corn — the plants that grow from those seeds carry more genes for plumpness, but they still vary in many ways. Over many generations of selection, the frequency of desirable gene variants increases in the population — and so does the quality of the crop. Examples of Artificial selection: CORNS! Disadvantages 1. Removes variation in a population of plants, diluting the gene pool of species.
2. Prone to diseases and susceptible to changes in the environment unlike naturally bred plant population. Thus, if there is an environmental factor occurring on plants and animals that were domesticated through artificial selection, there will be a higher possibility of extinction.
3. Slow process of trial and error by breeding over a few generations; takes a long time to produce a new variety.
4. Reduces the number of different alleles in a population.
5. Harder to produce new varieties in the future.
6. Can cause mutations and new problems
Wild Domestic Artificial Selection of Bananas! The banana plant is a hybrid, originating from the mismatched pairing of two South Asian wild plant species: Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.
The former produces unpalatable fruit flesh,the latter is far too seedy for enjoyable consumption. These closely related plants occasionally cross-pollinate and spawn seedlings which grow into sterile, half-breed banana plants. Some of these hybridized Musa bore unexpectedly tasty, seedless fruit with an unheard-of yellowness and inexplicably amusing shape. Artificial Selection of Bananas! Farmers realised that plants could be cultivated from suckering shoots and cuttings taken from the underground stem.
Most familiar is the Cavendish, a shapely and sweet-tasting dessert banana.

Every Cavendish is genetically identical, possessing the same pleasant taste and share the same potential for yellow curvaceousness and the same susceptibility to disease
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