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Geography:Natural Vegetation

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Joan Janae Sia

on 1 March 2014

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Transcript of Geography:Natural Vegetation

Geography :
Natural Vegetation

-
share some basic information, such as the distributions, characteristics as well as uses of the tropical rainforests.

Tropical rainforests
Three examples of tropical rainforests are :
Characteristics of a tropical rainforest
Animal species : Bald uakari,
Jaguar, Puma,
Harpy eagle,
Eyelash viper.
Characteristics of a tropical rainforest
~ Structure of a tropical rainforest
Purpose of presentation
:

Natural Vegetation
-
raise awareness amongst the students
of the plight of the diminishing tropical
rainforests in the world and why
they should be preserved


~
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-
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Climate
-
Humid
-
Rainy
Latitude
-
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Warm
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Wet
Source :
https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&msid=215932108689441711483.0004b9b74fca113b78e0a

Tropic of Cancer
(23.5° N latitude)
Tropic of Capricorn
Between
and
(23.5° S latitude)
The Amazon Rainforest
The Daintree Rainforest
The Congo Rainforest
The Amazon
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Size
:
5,500,000 km
2
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Location :
South America (Continent)
Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia,
Ecuador, French Guiana,
Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
(Countries)
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Latitude
:
-
Longtitude
:
15°31'05"S
71°45'55"W
Source :
Source :
http://worldwildlife.
org/places/amazon
http://www.google.com.sg/#gs_rn=18&gs_ri=psy-ab&cp=15&gs_id=1m&xhr=t&q=size+of+the+amazon+rainforest&es_nrs=true&pf=p&sclient=psy-ab&oq=size+of+the+ama&gs_l=&pbx=1&bav=
Animals and Plants

The Amazon
Animals
Bald uakari
Jaguar
Puma
Harpy eagle
Eyelash viper
Insects
True bugs
Leaf-cutter ants
http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature
/places/Amazon_Basin
Source:
Insect species : True Bugs, Leaf-
cutter ants.
Plant species : Mangroves,
Epiphytes,
Liana.
Plants
Liana
Mangroves
Epiphytes
Mangroves
Features & Uses
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Epiphytes
Features & Uses
-
Lianas
Features & Uses
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Lianas are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest trees. They have adapted to life in the rainforest by having their roots in the ground and climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and send roots down to the ground.
Mangroves have wide-spreading stilt roots that support the trees in the tidal mud and
trap nutritious organic matter.
http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/rforest/plants/adapt.htm
http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/rforest/plants/adapt.htm
Source :
Source :
Source:
Features
Uses
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Mangroves protect vulnerable coastlines from wave action because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion. Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimize damage. Mangroves are fish nurseries as they serve as a source of food for fish, shrimp and crabs that live in rivers and the shallow areas of the sea/ocean, and provide a safe haven for juvenile fish, shrimp and crab located on Guyana's coastline. Mangroves therefore contribute significantly to Guyana's fishing industry and provide us with our fish resource. Mangroves break down pollutants and play a large role in carbon sequestration (the capturing and storing of carbon ).
http://www.mangrovesgy.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=92&Itemid=75
Source:
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They play a significant role in coastal stabilization and promoting land accretion, fixation
of mud banks, dissipation of winds, tidal and wave energy.
Mangroves are used in
flavouring agents, textiles, mats, paper, housing, baskets, boats and tapa cloth and also
used as staple food.
The indigenous people of Australia and Sri Lanka use extracts from mangrove plants as
valuable sources of dyes.
Source:
http://www.aims.gov.au/docs/projectnet/mangroves-uses.html
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Features
Epiphytic plants are plants which rely on other plants for support, growing on trunks and branches rather than rooting themselves to the ground.
They gather
nutrients from the air or water around them, relying
on their host to provide physical support in the form

of a place to call home.
In the rainforest, epiphytic plants collect in the forest
canopy. Because they can grow up in the air, they can position themselves in a sunny location, putting them at an advantage over plants on the ground, which are
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-epiphytic-plants.htm
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heavily shaded.
Living in the canopy also gives epiphytic
plants access to an array of animals and insects rarely seen near the ground, and to more water.
Epiphytic have many economic uses; for example, as
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antibiotics, decorations, dyes, natural remedies, and stabilizers for perfume.
Source :
http://people.oregonstate.edu/~mccuneb/importance.htm
They are used to make a variety of things including baskets, ropes and wicker furniture.

Features
Uses
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http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/krubal/rainforest/Edit560s6/www/plants/lianas.html
Source :
Lianas contribute substantially to the diversity of the forest, provide food and arboreal pathways for many forest animals, and are widely
used by local people, mostly for medicine, but also for food, house
construction, and artisan work.
-
http://www.csrs.ch/fichiers/Bioterre/BONGERS-Frans-2002%20.pdf
Source :
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5 Layers
1.
Undergrowth layer = 0-2 metres
2.
Shrub layer = 5 metres
3.
Understorey layer = 6-15 metres
4.
Canopy layer = 15-30 metres
5.
Emergent layer = 30 metres and above
Source :
Earth - Our Home
Geography Elective
Guidebook
Revised Edition
( Upper Secondary)
Canopy
Understorey

Shrub
Undergrowth
Emergent
Layer
30 metres

and
above
Layer
metres
15-30
Layer
6-15
metres
Layer
5
metres
Layer
0-2
metres
Characteristics of a
tropical rainforest
~ Leaves of plants in the tropical rainforests
Special Features :
Leaves are....
broad
maximise the surface area for photosynthesis
Special Features :
Leaves have....
waxy surfaces and drip tips
facilitates the draining off of rainfall and
prevents harmful bacteria from growing on them as high rainfall and temperature promotes the growth of bacteria
Source:
Earth - Our Home, Geography Elective
Guidebook,Revised Edition,
(Upper Secondary)
Characteristics of a
tropical rainforest
~ Roots of plants in the tropical rainforests
Special Features :
Roots are shallow and spread widely.
Reason :
Given the rapid rate of
decomposition, humus is
formed rapidly in the
topsoil, which is the
uppermost layer of the
soil.
Source :
Earth - Our Home, Geography Elective
Guidebook,Revised Edition,
(Upper Secondary)
Conservation
of the rainforests
"The rainforests in the world are disappearing."
What it means :
There will be a loss of biomass. There will also be air pollution caused by the dust and smoke released when rainforests are removed by burning. There could also be loss of precious fauna and wildlife that may
lead to extinction.
be conserved? Why?
Should rainforests
1.
Rainforests contain a lot of ecosystems and wildlife with many species still undiscovered. They also provide us with many medicinal values. If we do not conserve them, and continue to destroy them, then many plants and animals will be destroyed, and be at risk of extinction.
2.
Rainforests produce oxygen and clean the atmosphere to help us breathe, so if they are not conserved, then the quality of our air will be negatively affected.
Rainforests SHOULD be conserved.
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