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Realistic Pencil Drawing of Still Life Unit

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by

Elizabeth Loyd

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Realistic Pencil Drawing of Still Life Unit

Why study still life?
Top Five Things in Successful Still Life
1. Use of Composition
2. Use of Perspective
3. Use of Lines
4. Use of Light
5. Use of Different Values
-or Color Values
Composition
1. Simplification (Focal Points)
2. Rule of thirds (Dividing artwork)
3. Rule of odds (1,3,5,7,etc)
4. Rule of space (Pos/Neg)
5. Movement (Leading the eye)
6. Focus (Use of Value)

Perspective
Vanishing points
Horizon Line VS. Table Line
One Point Perspective
Two Point Perspective
Three Point Perspective
Worm's Eye View
Bird's Eye View
Finding your viewpoints
Finding
Your

Eye Level
It is as easy as answering two questions!
Composition Definition
Composition is
the placement or arrangement of visual elements or ingredients in a work of art.

It can also be thought of as the organization of the elements of art according to the principles of art.

The term composition means
'putting together,'
and can apply to any work of art, from music to writing to photography, that is arranged or put together using conscious thought.
Realistic Pencil Drawing of Still Life Unit
-and all its parts
These principles can be means of a good composition yet they cannot be applied separately but should act together to form a good composition.
“Still Life is the best school; best exercise for artists.”
If you study the still life and learn to confidently paint it, you can paint anything in the world. -Sergei Bongart
How can I get better at still life?
"Art is like a sport. The more you practice- the better you get. In the beginning, it will be hard and it will take many tries.
With time and effort, you will be creating like a pro." -Miss Loyd
When will I know I am finished?
"Art is never finished, only abandoned." -Leonardo da Vinci
Will I make mistakes?
"Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep."-Scott Adams
Rule of thirds
The rule of thirds is a guideline followed by visual artists.
The objective is to stop the subject(s) and areas of interest (such as the horizon) from cutting the image in half,
by placing them near one of the lines that would divide the image into three equal columns and rows,
ideally near the intersection of those lines.
definition: focal points are on a line that divides the picture into thirds.
What is a focal point?
In Fine art, a Focal Point
focuses on a point of interest which makes an artwork unique.
Rule of Odds
The "rule of odds" suggests that
an odd number of subjects in an image is more interesting than an even number
. Thus if you have more than one subject in your picture, the suggestion is to choose an arrangement with at least three subjects. An even number of subjects produces symmetries in the image, which can appear less natural for a naturalistic, informal composition.
Rule of space (Pos/Neg)
The rule of space, pertaining to pos/neg, is that
negative space should not over power positive space.

Too much Negative Space (Background) can take away from your Positive Space (Objects or People).
*Artist Hint: Zoom In on Your Objects!
Simplification
(Focal Points)
Engaging Still Life by James Johnson
Movement
(Leading the eye)

Movement is caused by using elements under the rules of the principles in picture to give the feeling of motion and to guide the viewer's eyes throughout the artwork. In movement an artwork should flow, because the artist has the ability to control the viewer's eye. The artists control what the viewers see and how they see it, like a path leading across the page to the item the artist wants the viewer's attention focused on.

Techniques such as
scale and proportion
can be used to create an effect of movement in a visual artwork. For instance, an element that is further into the background is smaller in scale and lighter in value. The same element repeated in different places within the same image can also demonstrate the passing of time or movement

Movement
shows the path the viewer's eye follows throughout an artwork.
Focus
(Use of Value and Foreshortening)
Focus
using value is achieved by making
objects
closer to the viewer sharper and darker
and by making
objects
far away from the viewer more blurry and lighter

Foreshortening
, method of rendering
a specific
object or figure in a picture in realistic depth
.
The artist records the distortion that is seen by the eye
when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle
Horizon Line
A.K.A.- the eye level line
Eye Level Line
What is a
Vanishing Point?
Viewpoints
One Point Perspective
mathematical system for rendering 3D objects and space by using lines that are drawn vertically and horizontally which radiate from one point.
mathematical system for rendering 3D objects and space by use of intersecting lines that are drawn vertically and horizontally that radiate from two points.
Two Point Perspective
Three Point Perspective
In three-point perspective
there are two vanishing points on the horizon line; however, there also exists a vanishing point above or below the horizon line that the vertical lines disappear to.
Perspective is
an approximate representation, on paper of an image as it is seen by the eye.
(from Latin: perspicere meaning: to see through)
All perspective drawings have a horizon line. Objects shrink into the distance down to thickness of a line. It is named after the Earth's horizon.
Still life drawings have a table line and a horizon line (eye level line).
The horizon line is always
a persons eye level line.
Eye level refers to
the height a viewer’s eyes
are positioned in relationship to the ground.


There are various eye levels. For example, lying down creates a very low eye level, and standing on a mountain creates a very high eye level for the viewer.

In one and two point perspective, the vanishing points are located on the eye level.
A
worm's-eye
view is a
view of an object from below,
as though the artist was a worm.

A
street level
view
is a view of an object from a typical human position.

A
bird's-eye
view
is a view of an object from above,
as though the artist was a bird.
* Artist Hint: You know it is a one point perspective object when you only see one side.
Overveiw

.
the point at which something that has been growing smaller or increasingly faint disappears altogether
* Artist Hint: You know it is a two point perspective object when you can see the corner.
* Artist Hint: You know it is a three point perspective object when you only see the corner AND you are in either birds eye or worms eye position.
Where am I?
Laying Down?
Worms-eye
Standing?
Street View
Above it?
Birds-eye
What can I see?
One side?
One point
The corner?
Two point
The corner and sitting?
Three Point
The corner and above?
Three Point

What does line have to do with my still life?
"Remember, a line cannot exist alone; it always brings a companion along. Do remember that one line does nothing; it is only in relation to another that it creates a volume."
(Henri Matisse)
Types of Lines
-and Line parts
Contour Lines
Cross Contour
Accent Lines
Cross Hatching
Line Quality
Line is one of
the seven elements of art.
It is considered by most to be
the most basic element of art.
Line can control an viewer's eye.
It can describe edges.
It can indicate form as well as movement.
It can also indicate value and a light source in drawing.
Contour
Cross Contour
Accent Lines
Line Quality
Blind Contours
Hatching
Cross-Hatching
The most common use of line is showing where an object ends.
This type of line is called a contour line.
Contour lines
are most commonly called outlines
.
Line quality
is the thickness or thinness of a line
.
Take a look at the apples below. Notice how varying the line quality in the drawing on the right, makes the apple appear to have form.
Line can also indicate shadow and form through the use of cross contour lines.
Cross contour lines follow the contours of the object.
Much like running your finger around the form of an object.
There are two basic guidelines for this technique:

Accentuate lines nearest to you (everything is more distinct when close up).
Accentuate only one side of an object and/or lines on the bottom (to represent shadow and weight).


Accent lines
in drawing are just like using accent in talking -- we put emphasis on certain words to place more importance on them and the same applies in art, too. It's not interesting to talk in a monotone and similarly just using one consistent line in a drawing makes it look uninteresting. So, to change that, all you need to do

is
use pressure on the pencil to emphasize places you want to make a statement with.
Hatching
Hatching is
an artistic technique used to create shading effects by drawing closely spaced parallel lines
.
Cross-hatching is
a method of line drawing that describes light and shadow.
The representation of light utilizes the white or openness of the page, while shadow is created by a density of crossed lines.
What can you do with line in a still life?
Value Terms
-and their definitions
Value Scale
Value scale-
a guide to creating a range of value,
good pieces of art have a full range of value
Tints
Tint
is the mixture of white with a value, which increases lightness
Shades
Shade
is the mixture of black with a value, which increases darkness
Light Source
Light source-
area in which light is originating from
Shadows
Highlights
Value
Value
is defined as the relative lightness or darkness of a color.
It is an important tool for the designer/artist, in the way that it defines form and creates spatial illusions. Contrast of value separates objects in space, while gradation of value suggests mass and contour of a contiguous surface.

Light source
Value scale
Tints
Shades
Highlights
Shadows
The whole point to value is to create the illusion of light. Remember, without light we cannot see. So technically, without a light source, you have no illusion.
Sometimes tints are referred to as "pastels." While this is technically inaccurate (pastels are a type of crayon), it's such a common phrase that it's worth noting here.
You refer to an area that is dark and cool because the sun cannot reach it as
the shade
.
If a place is dark because something prevents light from reaching it, you can say that it is
in shadow.
Highlights-
areas on an object where light is hitting which causes a lightness in value
What are the values of your pencils?
Shadows-
areas on an object where light does not directly hit causing a darkness of value
Get out the pamphlet that came with your pencil kit!! :)
Light
and Shading Tips & Tools

the use of strong contrasts in light
adds a sense of drama to an artwork. Combining strong contrasts between light and dark with the use of diagonals gives it even more drama. The Baroque period (1600-1800's) in Europe was known for such dramatic uses of light and dark.
Joseph Wright of Derby A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery, in Which a Lamp is Put in Place of the Sun c 1766 oil
Chiaroscuro
Each time you begin to shade an object
identify the following:
1.
The shadows on the object (dark values)
2.
The brightest areas (the highlights)
3.
The light and medium values
(areas closer to the light source or not in shadow)
4.
The cast shadow
(the darkest values usually on table)
Four Ways to Look at Light
Contrast
Contrast can be used to make your drawings more three-dimensional by accentuating the light and shadows. By
using extremes in values (more light and dark values than middle values)
you create a high-contrast drawing. For a really powerful, strong, and dynamic drawing, you can draw very dark shading right next to the light areas.
Translating
Values
Seeing values is key to drawing in the third dimension. Many artists can visually simplify complex drawing subjects by simply squinting their eyes.
Squinting your eyes helps you screen out details and see simple values and shapes.
When you can see the shapes created by different values, you can draw your subject more accurately.
Kneaded Eraser
Rendering- using an eraser to create an image out of darker tones and values
Blending Stumps
Chamois
Use the soft side
Can be used as an eraser
Chiaroscuro
Four Ways to Look at Light
#1.... #2.... #3.... #4......
Contrast
Translating Values
Kneaded Eraser/ Rendering
Chamois Cloth
Blending Stumps
10:28
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