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The Nervous System ABC Book

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Ally Davis

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of The Nervous System ABC Book

B: Broca's area
also called convolution of Broca, region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the control of speech.
The Nervous System ABC Book
C: Cerebral Cortex
the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. The cortex (thin layer of tissue) is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white. The cortex covers the outer portion of the cerebrum and cerebellum.
D: Dura Mater
or dura, is a thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
E: Ependyma
is the thin epithelium-like lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
F: Falx Cerebri
A: Astrocyte
a star-shaped glial cell of the central nervous system
also known as the cerebral falx, so named from its sickle-like form, is a strong, arched fold of dura mater that descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.
G: Ganglion
a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.
H: Hypothalamus
portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
I: Interbrain
The region of the embryonic vertebrate neural tube that gives rise to posterior forebrain structures. In development, the forebrain develops from the prosencephalon, the most anterior vesicle of the neural tube that later forms both the diencephalon and the telencephalon. In adults, the diencephalon appears at the upper end of the brain stem, situated between the cerebrum and the brain stem. It is made up of four distinct components: the thalamus, the subthalamus, the hypothalamus, and the epithalamus.
J: Judgement
the ability to make considered decisions or come to sensible conclusions
K: Kidney
L: Lissencephaly
literally means smooth brain, is a rare brain formation disorder caused by defective neuronal migration during the 12th to 24th weeks of gestation resulting in a lack of development of brain folds and grooves
M: Microglia
a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system
N: Neurilemma
the thin membrane spirally enwrapping the myelin layers of certain fibers, especially of the peripheral nerves, or the axons of some unmyelinated nerve fibers
O: Oligodendrocyte
Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
P: Plexus
is a branching network of vessels or nerves. The vessels may be blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. The nerves are typically axons outside the central nervous system.
Q: Quadratus femoris
R: Rhombencephalon
or hindbrain is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. It includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. Together they support vital bodily processes.
S: Synapse
a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell
T: Thalamus
a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. Some of its functions are the relaying of sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. The two parts of the thalamus surround the third ventricle. It is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon.
U: Uncus
an anterior extremity of the Parahippocampal gyrus. It is separated from the apex of the temporal lobe by a slight fissure called the incisura temporalis
V: Vestibulocochlear
known as the eighth cranial nerve, transmits sound and equilibrium information from the inner ear to the brain
W: White matter
a component of the central nervous system, in the brain and superficial spinal cord, and consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.White matter tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue veined with capillaries. Its white color in prepared specimens is due to its usual preservation in formaldehyde.
X: Xanax
belongs to a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing down the movement of chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced. This results in a reduction in nervous tension.
Xanax is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and anxiety caused by depression.
Y: Yawn
Z: Zoloft
is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Sertraline affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression, panic, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Zoloft is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath usually after a person wakes up
bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism; controlled by the brain
a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle. Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh,but also acts to stabilize the femoral head in the Acetabulum.
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