Transcript of Who were the Ancient Romans?
Who were the Ancient Romans? Government According to the Roman historian Polybius, monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy were all balanced and formed the government found in Ancient Rome. How did the Ancient Romans run their government? Geography Where were the Ancient Romans located and why did this provide an advantage? Ancient Rome was located in the center of the Iranian Peninsula. It was fifteen miles from the Mediterranean Sea and lay at a major crossing point of the Tiber River. This is in the dark red area of the map. Advancements Technology The Ancient Romans were masters at engineering. They built roads so strong that they are still there today, improved the arch and column to make bridges, harbors, and aqueducts that carried water over great distances. Science The Ancient Romans took most of their scientific research from the Ancient Greeks, but they improved upon it and put it into practical use. They applied their knowledge of their geography to make maps and used their medical knowledge to help doctors improve public health. They created encyclopedias with this knowledge. How did the Ancient Romans contribute to today's world? Ancient Rome Religion Military Senate The Senate consisted of patricians that were approved by tribunes and served for life. They had control over all money belonging to the public and the treasury, handled all crimes that took place within Italy, advised the Consuls, and controlled the supplies sent to the military. However, the punishments that were a consequence of the crimes and any laws were handled by the people of Rome. , When Rome was first founded, complete power was given to a king, which is known as monarchy. In 509 B.C., the Roman people rebelled, and the monarchy became a republic. Rome was split into two classes: the plebeians, or the poorer lower class, and the patricians, the wealthier upper class. Rome remained this way until Julius Caesar and Pompey started a large civil war in 49 B.C., which Caesar won. Caesar made himself the dictator of Rome, but was murdered by a group of conspirators that did not agree with dictatorship. Caesar's alliances won a war against the conspirators for control of Rome, and Augustus Caesar, the son of Julius, was named dictator. Augustus agreed to share power with the Senate, and Rome became an empire. Rome's location was geographically advantageous. They were surrounded by land on all four sides, which made Rome very difficult to attack without allowing them any warning, which would have been much easier to accomplish had Rome been located on the sea. Founding Rome near the sea would have enabled easier trade, but the foreign merchandise and morals would have caused their customs to repeatedly change. It was also believed that men who lived near the sea would be tempted to leave their cities to become wealthy elsewhere. The Tiber River provided the trade route that was required in order to obtain the resources needed to live in a successful civilization, but it also enabled Rome to dispose of their unnecessary goods and avoid the disadvantages of living near the sea. The basic Roman army units, known as legions, were made of about 5,000 citizen-soldiers, who fought without pay and supplied their own weapons. The soldiers valued loyalty, courage, and respect for authority. Soldiers who showed courage won praise and gifts, but if a unit fled from battle, one out of every ten men was put to death. If the Romans captured land belonging to another civilization, the people had to pay taxes, acknowledge Roman leadership, and supply Roman soldiers with weapons. They were allowed to keep their customs, money, and local governments, and some people were granted Roman citizenship. How did the Romans run their military? The Ancient Roman civilization was full of many masters of architecture as well as design. Ancient Roman Architecture was based and formed upon the use of science and technology. The Colosseum was one of the greatest structures ever constructed in Ancient Rome. This took less than 10 years to build and showed off their most fampous invention, concrete, and also reflected the different styles of the Roman columns. Architecture In the early years of the Republic, religion involved household gods and Earthly spirits.Full transcript
This system of belief became inadequate for urban life in an expanding empire.
The Romans looked towards Greece for suitable models.
They adopted the Pantheon and gave it Roman names and new characteristics..
Athena became Minerva, goddess of learning and handicrafts. Aphrodite became Venus, bringer of good fortune and victory, and was protector of female chastity. Poseidon became Neptune, god of water. Also, in the early years, Christians were viewed as threats to the state because they would not put their emperor before their god. They were feared and viewed as radical troublemakers. In A.D. 313, the persecution of Christians ended when Constantine issued the Edict of Milan. This granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman Empire. 80 years later, the Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the Religion of the Roman Empire. What were the religious beliefs of the Romans?