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Copy of Non-participant Observation (overt & covert)

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Teresa Nguyen

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Non-participant Observation (overt & covert)

Bibliography Rich qualitative data from observations.

High degree of objectivity.

Does not affect the reliability of the observation. Strengths and limitation Quiz Time! Qualitative Research Method Summary Strengths and Limitations If you would like a copy of this prezi please contact: Qualitative research gathers data in written notes, video recordings open-ended questionnaires, unstructured interviews and observations. Observation When is it appropriate to use this method? Conditions for Usage Milgram Summary PLEASE CLOSE YOUR LAPTOPS! :) Aim: Milgram (1963) To test the effect of authority figures on others.
interested how far people are influence to committing harm to others. 40 participants aged from 20 - 50 years of age.
2 confederates - an experimenter and a victim.
With every incorrect answer a electric shock was administrated.
With each mistake the teacher administrated the electric shock.
When the teacher refused and asked the experimenter's guidance they were given 4 prods: Method Observational studies: investigations where the researcher observes a situation and records what happens but does not manipulate an independent variable.

Tend to have high ecological validity as there is no intervention and if the observer remains undetected the method avoids problems with demand characteristics. Participant Observation Non-participant Observation Covert Overt 65% of the teachers continued to the highest level of 450 volts. Results In this particular type of observation, the participants are completely unaware they are being studied or observed. •Does not include the observer's behaviour.
Observer does not participate in the study.
two types of observation: Discuss non-participant observation (both overt and covert) Outline non-participant observation
(both overt and covert observation) Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even if it is to the extent of killing another person. Conclusion or Inbox Teresa Nguyen and Covert Overt Define non-participant observation (both overt and covert observation) Participants are aware that they're being observed. Non-participant Observation Researcher does not participate.

Observes from a distant. Towards Overt Covert Street Psychology Street Bandura Road Blacky's University of Psychology Overt Motorway Covert Road Psychology Street Bandura Street Neuron Pl Katsumasu-Hirai Street Maguire Road Katsumasu-Hirai Street Blacky's University of Psychology Outline Outline non-participant observation overt observation Participants are informed about:
Researcher is opened to participants.
ask for permission or co-operation. Does
ask for permission and co-operation. Does not non-participant observation covert observation Suitable limited timed research/experiment or for monitoring of interactions within organisation.
e.g. factories
Useful to investigate communication and interactions between people.
Achieved through use of recording devices which allows the researcher to focus on the observation due to minimal interactions with participants.

Covert Observation are appropriate for groups or organisation that do not welcome observers. Evaluate non participant observation (both overt and covert) overt non-participant non-participant observation overt observation observation Presence of researchers/observers could result in demand characteristics.

Difficult to replicate as it is only a one off situation.

Observers may interpret the data differently. covert non-participant observation Rich qualitative data.

Participants are observed in their natural environment.

Stimulate further research. Lacks informed consent as researcher/observer does not inform participants nor seek for their agreement on being studied. Researcher bias could occur during his/her interpretation of the data. Findings may only be relevant to a particular group and so, generalisation to others may be difficult. data obtained through observation can be analysed with the ground theory analysis.
recording of qualitative data.
coding and connecting themes:
organising findings into categories.
producing an account:
a written account based on analysis/interpretations. Discuss how researchers analyse data obtained in observational research Discuss considerations involved in setting up and carrying out an observation (for example, audience effect, Hawthorne effect, disclosure) Hawthorn effect:
Change in behaviour due to the presence of researchers.
e.g. pretending to perform better or work harder because they are being observed.
Audience affect:
when participants are concerned about being judged or looked thus, subjective self-awareness.(care more about what other people say and think)
(Self) Disclosure:
Sharing your own personal and private secrets to someone else. Prod 1: please continue.
Prod 2: the experiment requires you to continue.
Prod 3: It is absolutely essential that you continue.
Prod 4: you have no other choice but to continue. You can now open your laptop. Please note that the summary is on elearn. However feel free to take notes. When the researcher is involved in the situation they are observing, “going under cover”. In which circumstances is it desirable to use triangulation with this method? investigate occurrences of prejudice.
agreement on interpretations.
investigate racial bias within the interpretation. Time Sampling Event Sampling Point Sampling Methods of recording data (Explain and evaluate the application of these methods of recording data) Focusing on an individual for a set period of time. Selected events or behaviours are sampled. Then relelavent behaviours are studied on a checklist or of a schedule when they had occurred. Observation of a group or organisation at different times. Ethics Lack of informed consent.

Invasion of privacy.

Psychological well-being of individuals studied.


Use of deception.

Psychological stress that may be inflicted on participants. Validity Demand Characteristics Disclosed: participants are aware that they are being observed and this reduces ethical issues of consent and privacy, however, it decreases validity as the participants are likely to show demand characteristics.

Undisclosed: participants are not aware that they are being observed and this raises ethical issues but increases the validity by decrease in demand characteristics. Expectancies Participant expectancy: Hawthorne effect.

Observer-expectancy effect: Researcher's cognitive bias causes the researcher the unconsciously influence the participants.

Participant’s expectations: participant behaves in a way to please the researcher.

Researcher bias: “beliefs affect interpretation of participant behaviour. Sampling Techniques Event sampling:
Researcher records an even every time it happens.
e.g. Every time when someone picks their nose.
Time sampling:
Occurs when the researcher decides on a particular time and then records what behaviour is occurring at that time.
Observer bias:
Cultural knowledge,particular theoretical or political knowledge the selection of behaviour for observation and hoew it isinterpenetrated.
May result as invalid data.

Misperception and misinterpretation of behaviour Observation - higher with covert compared to overt -> less demand characteristics Minimises selectivity and bias. Reliability The same as overt. Conclusion Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Quiz Time! Non-participant observation
Observers do not participate
2 types: overt and covert

Suitable when researcher has limited time
Monitor interactions that occur in organisations
Strength: High degree of objectivity
Limitation: Difficult to replicate, demand characteristics
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