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Africa, Kenya, & Development F13
Transcript of Africa, Kenya, & Development F13
What is Development?
"a form of directed change in which a state tries to change its internal economy and society, and/or a foreign state or institution tries to, for a higher standard of living"
“planned interventions aimed at generating and improving standards of living in less developed parts of the world”
Colonialism-- set up a specific international division of labour
--export of primary resources (export monoculture)
British East Africa Company
--Indian indentured servants
--encouraged British & Euro farmers to settle
--production of tea and coffee
--seized control of fertile lands "white highlands"
--Kiyuki most affected
--different ethnic groups put into 'reservations'
transformed indigenous populations from farmers to wage laborers
--compelled to work on farms through taxation (Hut & Poll taxes)
--others migrated to cities of Mombasa & Naorobi
Mau Mau rebellion (1952-1959)
--lead by group of Kiyuki
--declared state of emergency in 1952
--arrested leaders of rebellion, including Jomo Kenyetta
--when others caught, put in detainment camps
understood by white settlers as
--indication of savagery
--explained as the result of a psychological problem produced from rapid modernization and urban migration
dealt with by land reforms, introduction of cash cropping
--to curb migration to cities
--Independence - 1963
--in power until 1978
--emphasis on "africanization"
--becomes "developing country"
era of development started in 1949, and used to define countries gaining their independence. Why 1949?
end of WWII - 1945
--West had 20% of world's population but 65% of the world's income
--Colonies-67% of world's population but only 18% world income.
“More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate, they are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history humanity possess the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these people…I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life…what we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing…Greater production is the key to prosperity and peace. And the key to greater production is a wider and more vigorous application of modern scientific and technical knowledge...We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. The old imperialism – exploitation for foreign profit – has no place in our plans.” (Truman 1949).
established the existence of 'underdeveloped areas'
Re-affirmed the road ahead for development: technology transfer & economic growth
creation of bi-lateral aid
Creation of Bretton Woods Institutions 1944
-International Monetary Fund (IMF)
-International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
IMF disburse credit needed to stabilize national currency exchanges.
World Bank- provide loans for specific projects
But how? How do we stimulate economic growth and transfer technology?
Modernization Theories (1950s & 60s)
Talcot Parsons, William Rostow, Samuel Huntington
"all societies were at one time traditional; all societies are now either modern or in the process of becoming modern” (Huntington)
Europe a 'model' to be applied to the rest
--focus on industrialization
1st stage: traditional society
2nd stage: culture-change stage
3rd stage: 'take off'
4th stage: 'drive to maturity'
influenced agenda: loans, aid aimed at stimulating the industrialization process, rather than for social investments
i.e., setting up infrastructure, energy systems, export base
In this process, 'culture' & 'tradition' seen as impediment to 'modernity'
--if the process failed...it's because of 'culture'
'poor' because of values etc rather than structural inequality
-- poor b/c irrational, traditional, not-profit motivated
--assumes 'trickle down'
--but really find increasing income inequality
harambee "self-help" programs
--rural economic development through collaborative work
--focused on education, health care, houses
--regulated by government