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The Manhattan Project
Transcript of The Manhattan Project
Juan Diego Rizo Patrón
The Manhattan project had an immense impact on the world
It determined the Cold war and started the atomic era, besides the bombings of World war II. It put an end to a war, but started another.
It raised many fears, starting a period of scientific and military innovation.
Besides the cold war, The institutions involved gave birth to Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories.
These institutions, along with many universities, have made great progress on the health sciences and other fields
The Manhattan project can be seen with shame or pride, but, unfortunately, we can't deny war is a major pushing factor for scientific innovation.
The Manhattan Project and the WWII
People involved in Manhattan Project
• Julius Robert Oppenheimer (scientific investigator, head of the research and development)
• Leslie Richard Groves (military operations, head of the project)
• Niels Bohr (scientist)
• Enrico Fermi (scientist)
• Ernest Lawrence (scientist)
• Leo Szilard (nuclear scientist)
• Edward Teller (nuclear scientist)
• Otto Frisch (physicist)
• Franklin Delano Roosevelt (USA president)
• George Kistiakowsky (physicist)
• Phillip Morrison (physicist)
• Emilio Segre(physicist)
• Stanislaw Ulam (mathematician)
• Norman Ramsey (physicist)
• Hans Bethe (theorical physicist)
• Richard Feynman (scientist)
• Albert Einstein (physicist)
Research and Development
• The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
The main goal was to develop a droppable bomb made out of the fissionable material recently discovered, that would be powerful enough to destroy entire cities. The government considered the development urgent, because it was believed that the germans were also developing such bombs.
New Mexico Testings
The Project took final form in the desert of New Mexico, where, in 1943, Robert J. Oppenheimer began directing Project Y at a laboratory at Los Alamos, along with such minds as Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, and Fermi. Here theory and practice came together, as the problems of achieving critical mass-a nuclear explosion-and the construction of a deliverable bomb were worked out.
Finally, on the morning of July 16, in the New Mexico desert 120 miles south of Santa Fe, the first atomic bomb was detonated.
The bomb was based on chain reactions triggered by the colliding of certain uranium and plutonium isotopes. Los alamos was chosen to build the research facility, which rapidly became into a growing community. The material came from other facilities in washington, or Oak ridge labs, were the isotopes were produced.
Plutonium was compressed to create a implosion, but no one really knew how strong the explosion could be. Scientists weren't even sure if the whole project was going to work!
The scientists and a few dignitaries had removed themselves 10,000 yards away to observe as the first mushroom cloud of searing light stretched 40,000 feet into the air and generated the destructive power of 15,000 to 20,000 tons of TNT. The project was succesful.
The Manhattan Project was the allied answer to the german intention to develop the atomic bomb.
It brought together the best of the scientific minds of the period. It cost nearly $2 billion and employed approximately 130,000 people.