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post civil war
Transcript of post civil war
The Freedman's Bureau Freedmans bureau
Establised in 1865 by congress to help former slaves in the south
Provides food, clothing, hospitals, legal protection, and education The bureau's work consisted chiefly of five actions of activity- relief work for both black and whites in war stricken areas, regulation of black labor under the new conditions, administration of justice cases concerning the blacks, management of abandoned and confiscated property, and support the education of blacks. The bureau accomplished much for education but not much for civil rights. Lincoln and U.S. Grants election! Johnsons impeachment Former Slave improvments! To the 14th amendment Post Civil War Southern Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan
Announces his ten percent plan-government would pardon all confederates- except high ranking officials and those accused of crimes against prisoners of war- those who had sworn allegiance to the union
Angered a minority of republican congress
The radicals lead by senator Charles Sumner wanted to destroy the political power of former slave holders
Wanted African Americans to have full citizenship and right to vote Johnson plan! then the! Johnson’s plan
The difference was that Johnson tried to break the planters power by excluding high-ranking confederates and wealthy southern landowners from taking the oath needed for voting privileges
Seven remaining ex- confederate states quickly agreed -setup new state governments and elected representatives to congress
In 1866 congress posted civil rights, this law gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminating laws
Johnson shocked everyone when he vetoed both freedman’s bureau act and civil rights act 14th Amendment:
prevented states from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. citizen, now defined as "all persons born or nationalized in the U.S."
was expressly intended to override and nullify the Dred Scott decision (and good ol' americans) And the 15th amendment Post War South 15th Amendment:
gave blacks right to vote
9/10 of the registered African American men voted for republicans is it just me? or does he look really mad about being impeached? yea i like this guy more too! Johnson Impeached:
radicals believed that Johnson was blocking reconstruction, so they started to try to find grounds on which they could impeach him
when Johnson removed the secretary of war, they found those grounds because he had violated the Tenure of Office Act Grant Elected:
elected in 1869
won by a margin of 306,000 out of a total of 6 million ballots
soon after he was elected, the radicals introduced the 15th amendment, which got ratified in 1870 the war devastated the south economically
value of properties plummeted
thousands of southern men died
but the republican government began public work shop programs to help repair physical damage and provide social services Post War South Conditions three groups that constituted the republican party in the south were
1.) Scalawags- white southerners who joined the republican party
2.) Carpetbaggers- Northerners who moved south post civil war
3.) African Americans- gained rights to vote as a result of the 15th amendment
their different goals led to a lack of unity in the republican party Post War South Politics Sharecropping and tenant farming
in 1865 General Sherman promised the former slaves who followed his army 40 acres per family and the use of army mules, but most slaves received no land
without their own land freed african americans as well as poor white farmers began a system known as sharecropping(landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres as well as seed and tools) During Reconstruction Chruches were the only institution African Americans fully controlled
Reconstrution Governments created schools and ran schools wth help from African American churches, Northern missionaries, and $6 million from the Freedmans Bureau.
schools such as Atlanta, Fisk, and Howard Universities were all founded by religious groups such as the American Missionary Association after the war African Americans were eager to get into politics and run for office
out of 125 southerners 16 of them were african american
Hiram Revels- was the first African American senator African Americans in Politics Hiram Revels Collapse of reconstruction
resentment of African Americans and new rights lead to formation of vigilante groups, most notorious were the KKK.
their goals were to destroy the Rep. party, top the Reconstruction govt., aid planter class and deny African Americans of their new rights
In response, congress passed a series of laws(Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871) that tightened its hold in the South and suppressed klan activity.
Yet congress soon passed a legislation that severely weakened the Rep. Party in the South. Amnesty Act-returned right to vote and hold office to 150,000 former
The freedmen's bureau expired and allowed the south to regain power.
The breakdown of the Rep. party made it difficult to impose the reconstruction plan in the south.
Bank failures, panic of 1873( 5 year depression, north gets distracted from the south).
Slowly republicans retreat from reconstruction policies Democrats "Redeem" the South
Republicans hold on the south loosens and the southern democrats regain control. This redemption and a political deal made during the national election of 1876, caused the congressional reconstruction to come to an end.
election of 1876-democratic candidate Samuel J. Tilden won popular vote, but was 1 vote short of victory. so the southern democrats in congress agreed to accept the rep. candidate, Hayes, if troops would withdraw from the south. Rep. leaders agreed, Hayes was elected, and reconstruction ended.
Democrats began to gain power through intimidation, cutting taxes imposed by the Rep. and defining elections as a struggle between whites and african americans.
They saw this as a crusade to eradicate the Rep./North's presence in the South.