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memory

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by

Michael Simmons

on 17 August 2017

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Transcript of memory

3 Types
episodic
semantic
procedural

3 processes
encoding
storage
retrieval
encoding
translation of info into a storable form
Forgetting
stored information cannot be remembered when needed, but can at a later time; information is inaccessible.
amnesia
severe memory loss caused by brain injury, shock, fatigue, illness or repression
3 stages
sensory
short-term
long-term
memory
episodic memory
memory of a specific event
(dinner last night, last quiz, etc)

"flashbulb memory" - a special kind
of episodic memory with GREAT detail

usually triggered by events with
special meaning
first love / birth of child / special accomplishment
major news stories / tragedies / life changers
semantic memory
general knowledge people remember

don't remember when memory was aquired
alphabet / presidents / general knowledge
procedural memory
consists of learned skills or procedures

even if skill is unused for long periods of time, you will likely not forget it
riding a bike / swimming / driving / playing instruments
visual codes - making a mental picture
acoustic codes - use sequences of sound
semantic codes - applying meaning
OTTFFSSENT
storage
maintenance of encoded info over a period of time
maintenance rehearsal - repeating info over and over
elaborative rehearsal - relate new info to well known info
retrieval
locating stored info and returning it to conscious thought
context-dependent memories - dependent on the place where they were encoded and stored

state-dependent memories - dependent on the mood in which they were encoded and stored

"tip of the tongue" phenomenon
sensory memory
first stage of memory; initial recording of info that enters through our senses
mental pictures we form of visual stimuli are called
ICONS

mental traces of sound are called
ECHOES
short-term memory
information you are currently aware of or thinking about
aka primary or active memory
come from paying attention to sensory memories

very brief (20-30 seconds)
very limited (7 +/- 2 items)

s/t memory can only hold so much info;
interference
occurs when new info replaces old info (think writing over files)

chunking
- organization of items into familiar or manageable units
(see teacher notes for chunking activity)
long-term memory
final stage of memory
includes all explicit and implicit memories
the transfer of info to l/t memory comes from maintenance or elaborative rehearsal
contains more words, pictures, sounds, smells, tastes than you could count.
memories are in color and stereo
unlimited storage capacity
repression
- purposeful forgetting of painful memories that cause anxiety, guilt or shame; theorized by Freud as a form of self-preservation; controversial in contemporary psychology
infantile amnesia
- do you remember being born? your first birthday? your second?
anterograde amnesia
- memory loss from trauma that prevents someone from forming new memories
retrograde amnesia
- forgetting the period leading up to the traumatic event
(high school reunion)
(brain game memory episode)
EXAMPLE:
10 SECONDS
storage of information over an extended period of time
info here is usually out of our awareness, but
can be called into working memory when needed
(explicit)
(explicit)
(implicit)
memories susceptible to corruption
stored information can never be remembered, and physical traces of memory disappear; information is unavailable.
displacement
occurs when new memories replace old memories in s/t memory
decay
is the natural/gradual fading of memories that occurs when information is not rehearsed
episodic memory is most affected
procedural memory typically left intact
semantic memory can sometimes be affected in extreme cases
information cannot be stored in short-term memory
long-term memory is not affected
Full transcript