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Stress Management - Chapter 15

PHED Lecture
by

Stress Management

on 5 January 2013

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Transcript of Stress Management - Chapter 15

Chapter 15
Healthy Lifestyle Objectives - Explain the health and stress-relieving benefits of a balanced exercise program
- Describe the components of a healthy diet
- Explain the impact of stress on nutritional needs and body fat
- Discuss the relationship between stress and eating disorders
- Assess the amount of sleep you require
- Explain unhealthy coping strategies
- Incorporate healthy lifestyle habits into your life to reduce and eliminate stress Exercise Exercise may be one of the most powerful ways to improve your lifestyle Exercise as a Stress Buffer Exercise is a way to follow through on the stress response message by using our fighting and running muscles Other Benefits of Exercise Exercise can:
Improve your mood
Reduce anxiety
Increase energy
Help you adapt better
Gives you control Components of Exercises Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscle fitness Flexibility Body Composition Which Exercise is Best? Any exercise that you enjoy, that is healthy, and that you will do

Decide what you want to accomplish

Over-exercise can become a stressor to the body Sticking With Exercise Enjoyment

Convenience

Social Support Nutrition A Healthy Diet

The best nutritional preparation for stress is a varied and balanced diet

Dietary Guideline for Americans

MyPyramid Nutrition and Stress The body gets energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

Stress places some additional nutritional demands on the body Complex carbohydrates boost the brain’s level of serotonin

Fresh fruits and vegetables

Legumes

Whole grains Do I Need a Vitamin? Some nutritionists recommend taking a vitamin-mineral supplement to prepare for stressful times.

Mega-doses aren’t necessary

Supplements do not take the place of a balanced diet FYI Low water levels can affect our mood and perceptions dramatically Drinking Water What to Limit or Avoid Caffeine

Trans Fatty Acids

Soft Drinks Overeating Your stomach is about the size of two fists

Digesting food requires a lot of energy Students awaiting an exam were given a pager, which beeped 10 times a day at random intervals

Upon the signal, the students rated their emotional state and motivation to eat Comfort Food Research Highlight Source: “The Perceived Function of Eating Is Changed During Examination Stress: A Field Study,” by M. Macht, C. Haupt, and H. Ellgring, Eating Behavior, 6(2) (2005): 109–112. Results:

Compared to the control subjects, the student awaiting the exam reported higher emotional stress and increased tendency to eat to distract themselves Comfort Food Research Highlight Stress and Healthy Weight Eating to Cope – The Food/Mood Connection
Eating to cope will more likely increase your stress

When we eat, our body releases dopamine – makes us feel good and helps offset emotional pain Unused Glucose During the stress response, the body produces more glucose

When glucose is not used for physical activity, it is stored as fat The Cortisol Connection Cortisol stores energy

The body knows that when it encounters something threatening, food may not be available immediately

It stores energy as fat Eating Disorders Runaway eating – the consistent use of food and food-related behaviors to deal with unpleasant feelings and the sense that these feelings are out of control Warning signs:
Severely restricting one’s diet
Eating large quantities of food
Regularly performing exhaustive exercise routines
Having at least one out-of-control binge in the last year Types of Eating Disorders Anorexia

Bulimia

Binge Eating Disorder Contributing Factors Psychological Factors
Low self-esteem
Feelings of inadequacy or lack of control in life
Depression, anxiety, anger, or loneliness Psychological Depression, Anxiety, Anger, Or Loneliness Low Self-Esteem Feelings of inadequacy or lack of control in life Contributing Factors Interpersonal Factors

Troubled family or personal relationships
Difficulty expressing emotions and feelings
History of being teased or ridiculed based on size or weight
History of physical or sexual abuse Social Factors

Cultural pressures
Narrow definitions of beauty
Cultural norms Other Factors

Certain chemicals of the brain that control hunger, appetite, and digestion have been found to be out of balance in some individuals with eating disorders Sleep Sleep A good night’s sleep is one in which you fall asleep fast and only wake up in the morning, feeling refreshed and alert

The fight-or-flight response is one of arousal and activity – not rest How Much Sleep Do You Need? There is no right amount of sleep for everyone

For four days straight, go to bed at the same time

Wake up naturally without an alarm clock Write your sleep time into your schedule and make it a priority Time Tip Healthy Sleep Advice Set and stick to a sleep schedule

Expose yourself to bright light in the morning and avoid it at night

Exercise regularly Establish a relaxing bedtime routine

Create a cool, comfortable sleeping environment that is free of distractions

Unplug

Treat your bed as a sanctuary from the stresses of the day Keep a “worry book” next to your bed

Avoid caffeinated drinks, chocolate, and tobacco at night

Avoid large meals and beverages right before bedtime No nightcaps

Avoid medications that delay or disrupt your sleep

No late-afternoon or evening naps, unless you work nights Lifestyle Behaviors to Avoid Tobacco

The effects of nicotine mimic those of the stress response Why smoking “helps” stress

“buzz” feels better than pain of stress

Feeling of control

Results in breathing differently Alcohol As a means to let loose and feel accepted

To ease feelings of pain or stress

To reduce anxiety and pressure to perform

As a way to cope Drugs Some students turn to drugs to find peace of mind

Drugs create a cycle of dependence by masking the symptoms of stress Exercise for at least 30 minutes, preferably when you feel stressed

After you are finished, respond to these questions:
Describe the cause of your stress

How did you feel before you started exercising? The Power of Exercise LAB What exercise or activity did you select?

Describe how you felt at the conclusion of your exercise session

Explain in your own words how exercise works to manage stress The Power of Exercise LAB Key Points - Lifestyle habits have a significant impact on our ability to prevent and manage stress
- Exercise is one of the most powerful stress buffers
- An exercise program should be balanced
- The best nutritional preparation for stress is a varied and balanced diet
- The factors that help explain how stress contributes to obesity are: eating to cope, unused glucose, and the cortisol connection - Eating disorders have a clear connection to perceived stress and control
- Getting adequate sleep is essential to maintaining good health and reducing stress
- To maintain a healthy lifestyle, people should avoid unhealthy activities
- Two drugs that are especially prevalent among college students are alcohol and tobacco
- Whether to adhere to a healthy lifestyle is your choice to make Key Points
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