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Escherichia Coli

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Laura McCourt

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of Escherichia Coli

Signs & Symptoms
The symptoms of E-coli infection can range from very mild to life threatening.
Some examples of these would be:
Acute abdominal cramps
Vomiting
Haemorrhagic diarrhoea
Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome(HUS)
Sources and Mechanism of Transmission
The transmission of E.coli occurs:
contaminated foods such as raw and undercooked ground meat products and raw milk
cross- contamination during the food preparation, for example: contaminated kitchen surfaces and utensils, can lead to infection.
fruits and vegetables example, Lettuce; Spinach, whereby contamination may be due to the contact with faeces from domestic or wild animals at some stage during the cultivation.
person to person contact, if infected people do not adequately wash their hands.
Water contamination – animal feces get into contact with natural waters for example, lakes, rivers and water reservoirs.
What is Escherichia Coli?
Pathological changes/mechanisms
Stec E-coli produces Shiga-like toxins.
These are toxins which are functionally identical to those produced by Shigella dysenteriae.
When E-coli finds it’s way out of the digestive tract and into the blood stream this is when it can affect other organs.
Effective on small blood vessels such as those found in the kidneys and digestive tract.
Once the bacteria attaches to a cell and injects the toxin which works to catalytically inactivate ribosomal sub-units, blocking mRNA translation. The end to protein synthesis results in cell death and haemorrhaging.
One specific target is the filtering structure key to kidney function, destruction of which causes the kidneys to fail.

Escherichia Coli
Host Susceptibility
There are certain patients with a higher susceptibility to E.Coli:
Young or elderly patients, which in some cases E.Coli can lead to a life threatening disease.
Immunosuppressed patients, such as patients with AIDS.
Patients who have undergone stomach surgery.
Pregnant women, as it increases the risk of infection.
Patients with other infections.
Nevertheless, most patients recover within 10 days.
Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) is Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found in healthy microflora of the gut.
Most do not cause any harm to the body if it is found inside the gut:
It is beneficial as it synthesizes vitamin K2.
It also provides protection against harmful bacteria.
Nevertheless, some E.Coli can cause disease, which are known as pathogenic E.Coli.
LVCM
Control and Prevention
Sources and Mechanism of Transmission
E.coli O157 can be mostly be found in the intestines of cattle but has also be found in the intestines of sheep, pigs, chickens and deer.
In a 2003 it was found that 13.8% of beef cattle carried the E.coli bacterium and 5.9% if dairy cattle carried it.


Sources and Mechanism of Transmission
Contaminated food is a source of E.coli. High risk foods included undercooked beef, unpasteurized milk and soft cheeses made from raw milk

Contaminated water such as contaminated drinking water or swimming in contaminated water can also be a risk.
References
ZS
It is an opportunistic pathogen:
If it reaches other organs it can cause serious infection and illness. Serotype O157:H7 is very harmful as it causes food poising in humans.

JMJ
JMJ
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/68511.php
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs125/en/
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/ecoli/understanding/Pages/Prevention.aspx
http://www.cdc.gov/features/ecoliinfection/
http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/ecoli/
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/e-coli-infection-treatment-overview
http://www.cawt.com/Site/11/Documents/Publications/Population%20Health/Health%20Protection%20Policies/BarneyHeywood.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiga-like_toxin
http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/general/index.html
Control and Prevention
Control and Prevention
Cook meat well. (Cook ground meat products to an internal temperature of 160ºF ≈ 71º C)
Wash vegetables.
Wash cutlery and crockery. Use separate knifes, cutting boards and surfaces. In addition, also use food gloves dealing with raw meat.
Keep raw meat separate from ready-to-eat foods.

Drink Pasteurized milk and juices.
Hand hygiene.
Avoid swallowing water when swimming.
Wash hands after being in contact with cows, sheep, chickens and pigs.
Ensure there is a clean water supply.
Spread awareness about the disease.

Thanks for listening
Haemolytic Ureamic Syndrome (HUS)

CL
Infection can cause complications leading to the disease HUS.
Up to 10% of infections result in HUS.
Causes destruction of red blood cells and results in kidney failure.
25% of patients experience neurological complications such as seizure
References
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/ecoli-o157-outbreak-linked-to-watercress-product-withdrawn
http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/e_coli/fact_sheet.htm
http://classes.midlandstech.edu/carterp/Courses/bio225/chap15/lecture3.htm
http://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/ecoli/
http://kidshealth.org/kid/stay_healthy/food/ecoli.html
http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/escherichia-coli
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs125/en/
http://www.medicinenet.com/e_coli__0157h7/page6.htm
http://www.tcd.ie/academicunits/schools/medicine/clinical_microbiology/assets/docs/MSC/nrmicro818.pdf
Treatment
E.coli infections tend not to be treated, especially in healthy adults.
Most people will recover from the infection within 5 - 10 days.
Anyone who is infected should drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.
If a patient shows symptoms of severe blood or kidney problems they may be treated with dialysis or blood transfusions.
Treatment
It is recommended that antibiotics are not to given to treat an E.Coli infection.
Using antibiotics appear to make symptoms worse because the more damage caused to the bacterium the more toxins it produces.
Also as a result of using antibiotics the chances of developing HUS.
It is suggested that only cases where the infection have become septic are treated this way.
Sources and Mechanism of Transmission
Examples:
Pathogenic E.Coli strains
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