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Effects of Teratogens on Prenatal Development

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by

andrea rico

on 10 September 2014

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Transcript of Effects of Teratogens on Prenatal Development

- The 3 stages in prenatal development are:
Zygote (conception to 2 weeks).
Embryo (2weeks-8 weeks).
Fetus (9 weeks-birth).

-Teratogens:
An agent or factor that causes harm to the embryo and fetus during prenatal development that leads to abnormalities
Introduction:
Effects of Teratogens on Prenatal Development
-Biological:
HIV virus
STDS
AIDS

-Environmental:
Alcohol (FAS)
Drugs
Smoking
Biological/Environmental Factors:
Stage 2: Embryonic Stage

Stage 3: Fetal Stage
Stage 1
-9 Weeks to birth
-During the 9th week first real bone cells start to replace cartilage
-Fetus weighs 1/2 ounce at 9weeks
-By the 38th week the fetus is fully developed weighing about 7 pounds
Zygote (Germinal stage)
Conception-two weeks
Biological teratogen: HIV
Enviornmental teratogen: Alcohol/Smoking
Affects of Smoking On Fetus
-Lack of blood flow and oxygen to fetus
-Placental abruption
-Vaginal bleeding
-Low birth weight
-Preterm labor
-Premature birth
-Birth defects involving the heart, limbs, skull, muscles and other areas
-Pregnancy loss

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Effects of Alcohol
-Alcohol can cross from mothers blood to babies blood, Its passed through the placenta.

-Alcohol can cause birth and developmental defects, particularly in the heart and brain.
Conclusion:

The embryonic stage is the 2nd of the three stages of pregnancy.
H.I.V

Overall, teratogens impose negative outcomes taking effects on prenatal and postnatal stages of human development. Harm from teratogens can present themselves well before conception and/or in later developmental stages of life through infancy and adolescence.
It is important to monitor the health of the mother and child throughout pregnancy (seek medical advice) and pay close attention to food and drug consumption to promote a healthy pregnancy and child.
The risks of miscarriage and birth defects vary.
2-4 drinks(FAE)
5-6 drinks FAS)
Regardless, prenatal exposure to alcohol....
www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002398.htm
-Before effective treatment transmission of the virus from mother to fetus was 25%

-Today with treatment started before pregnancy or within the first trimester transmission of the virus from mother to fetus is 2%
When teratogens are introduced at such a delicate time, severe consequences sometimes ensue.
When teratogens are introduced to the embryo severe cosequences sometimes ensue.
Alcohol:

Sources:
www.crisanet.org
Exploring Psychology 8th edition, David G Myers
Embryo.asu.edu
Effects of HIV
Maternal consumption of alcohol can be devastating when introduced at any stage. When introduced at in the embryonic stage especially, the ocular nerve is especially susceptible to damage.
Mother carries HIV - child may carry also.
Ways to prevent transmitting HIV to baby
Health
Start HIV treatment before/during
This is why one of the most common physical markers of FAS are the eyes
Smoking:

Smoking during the embryonic stage of your pregnancy most often stunts the embryo's development.
Medscape.com/viewarticle/818122
Full transcript