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HOA IV_Ivatan House
Transcript of HOA IV_Ivatan House
“The way most visitors to Batanes describe it, these far-flung islands seem to be a place that isn’t quite real. It has gained a reputation as a land seemingly not of this earth, part of some mythical realm, a
peaceful pastoral haven. If this were Middle Earth, in consideration of its peaceable folk and quaint, rounded, partially submerged architecture, Batanes would probably be the Shire. The province, the smallest in the entire country in terms of both population and land area, is also known as the ‘Home Of The Winds’ due to its legendarily stormy weather.”
- Jude Defensor, Filipino writer
I N F L U E N C E S
About the Inhabitants
• Fishing, farming and house building activities remain deeply rooted in Ivatan way of life.
• The pre- and proto-historic Ivatan were a boat-making and seafaring people who lived by fishing, hunting, and cultivation of root crops, bananas, and sugarcane.
• A distinct language called Ivatan is spoken on the islands of Batan and Sabtang.There is another language called Initbayat, spoken mainly on the island of Itbayat. Aside from Ivatan, Filipino, English, and Ilocano are also spoken.
A R C H I T E C T U R E
• Difficulty in producing lime and scarcity of traditional raw materials come into conflict with heritage preservation efforts.
• The people had to immediately repair their houses due to the constant battering of typhoons that hit the province yearly.
• The common cause of damage is seepage of water inside the walls thus eroding the lime mortar, which in turn weakens the structure.
hot humid, summer months
continous monsoon rains
• During the rainy season, inhabitants nestle inside their cozy houses with abundant stock of agricultural products that will last throughout the rest of the year.
GEOGRAPHICAL & GEOLOGICAL
• The Province of Batanesin the Philippines consists of ten or more volcanic islands located 161 kilometers north of the Luzon mainland.
• Batan is the Provincial Capital of Batanes Province
• The Batanes islands were created by a series of volcanic activity and other geologic changes from the late Miocene (Mahatao Volcano), Pliocene (Mount Matarem), and Quaternary (Mount Iraya) periods.
• Only root crops can be grown for most of the year because of typhoon.
• Situated between the equatorial latitudes of Cancer and Capricorn, the sun hovers almost directly above generating an environment that is warm and fertile during summer.
• Two types of Ivatan religious consciousness are to be distinguished: the indigenous pre-hispanic beliefs which are held up to the present, and the Christian world view engendered by the Roman Catholic religion. These two types of religious consciousness are not necessarily in conflict with each other.
• Generally, the Ivatan do not worship spirits or invisible beings.
Socio - Political
Hierarchal; Wealth determined the rank and dignity of a person.
Mangpus - village chief
Mapolon - district subalterns
Kumaidian - community
Before 17th Century
The huts made of light and perishable materials. The huts were low for two reasons: high structures would have been easily destroyed by typhoon and Batanes did not have enough suitable timber nor suitable tools for larger construction. The early Ivatan houses were built small and low, their sides made of small posts which were not more than 1.4 meters high. They had ridgepoles which were about 2.1 or 2.4 meters. A fireplace was built at one end, and the occupants had simple wooden boards placed on the ground to lie on.
Roofing - cogon
Wall - stone held by mud mixed withc hopped cogon
Beam - stone
Lintel - stone
17th Century - present
Architecture made of stone and thatch materials was introduced. More advanced technology of carpentry and masonry caused a gradual development.
Roofing - several layers of cogon held together by reeds and rattan
Wall - stone bound by lime mortar
Beam - reinforced concrete for structural members
Lintel - concrete lintel beams, infused with reinforced beams
Classification of Traditional Ivatan Houses
Ethnic Architecture - Ivatan houses classified under ethnic architecture must be studied in relation to the natural and social environment of the native community, their construction materials and techniques that formed a distinct architectural form for this part of the world. They are made of natural materials such as wood, stone, vegetation, and sometimes mud. Ethnic houses are of modest proportions and used primarily as a shelter from the elements and as a place to sleep, cook, and eat.
Folk Architecture - Ivatan houses classified under ethnic architecture must be studied in relation to the natural and social environment of the native community, their construction materials and techniques that formed a distinct architectural form for this part of the world. They are made of natural materials such as wood, stone, vegetation, and sometimes mud. Ethnic houses are of modest proportions and used primarily as a shelter from the elements and as a place to sleep, cook, and eat.
Two Major Archetypes of Ivatan House
WOOD AND THATCH STUCTURES
LIME-STONE-WOOD AND THATCH STRUCTURES
These structures use thatch, wood planks, wood studs, reeds, or a combination of these. They are usually smaller and built with less height compared to those made of stone walls. These are limited to single story structures. Most WT structures are used as storage or kitchen areas. In addition, along coastline villages, the WT structures may serve as temporary dwellings during harvest season for fishing and other agricultural activities.
Examples: Lagatiti, Rahaung, Chinvuvuhung/Jinjin/Gingin, Nirindin, and Mayhurahed
These structures use stones of varying sizes from gravel to boulders. Different stones are used including volcanic, basalt, metamorphic, and the like. Coral stones are also commonly used particularly in areas close to the sea. Stones are piled and bound together by applying lime mortar, forming a strong, interlocking edifice.
The building system allows for a larger floor area and a two-storey frame. During the rainy season, the lower level is usually used as storage for food and as shelter for animals. During summer, it is used for storage of agricultural products such as yam, sweet potato, wood and charcoal while the upper level is used as the main living quarters. A wood floor separates the two levels.
Examples: Beaterio, Maytuab/Nituavan, Colonial Houses, and Sinadumparan
• Water tightness of the roofs must be practiced at all times. Poor performance to precipitation causes corrosion of lime mortar, increase in humidity and water retention on walls leads to fungi on walls. Good ventilation must be provided by opening windows and doors as often as possible
WOOD AND THATCH STRUCTURES
LIME-STONE-WOOD AND THATCH STRUCTURES
Maytuab / Nituavan
This house type evolved from the Sinadumparan (2-slope roof structure) as a result of a disastrous earthquake.
The wealthy Ivatan built bigger, two-storey house with a 4-slope roof which had a living room and sleeping quarters separate from the kitchen.
This has two doors and two windows built in three walls, while the fourth wall, which faces the direction of the strongest winds during typhoons, is left windowless.
As further protection against these violent winds and strong rains, a big roof net called panpet, made of strong ropes fastened to strong pegs or large stone anchors, is thrown over the entire roof during typhoons.
HERITAGE ARCHITECTURE OF BATANES ISLANDS IN THE PHILIPPINES:
A SURVEY OF DIFFERENT HOUSE TYPES AND THEIR EVOLUTION
By: Archt. Jose F. Ignacio, UAP
College of Architecture University of the Philippines