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Community Ecology Project

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by

Eeman A.

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Community Ecology Project

By: Eeman Abbasi and Becca Jiang Community Ecology Plants and Defenses Type 1 - relatively low low death rates during early and middle life, but dropping steeply as death rates increase among older age groups
Type 2- curves are intermediate with mortality, and have a constant death rate
Type 3 - high death rates at an early age, but then flattens out and the death rates decline for those who have survived to a certain age A survivor ship curve shows the number of organisms still alive Defenses Chemical Physical Strategic http://www.bioedonline.org/slides/slideimgs/talk008__s007_f.gif Traps are set within the boundaries of the population. The captured animals are marked and set free. After enough time has passed so that the captured animals can mix randomly, the traps are set again. The proportion of marked to unmarked animals that are captured a second time gives an estimate of the size of the entire population. Mark and Recapture Method random - patternless, unpredictable Patterns of Dispersion Batesian Mimicry - when a harmless species mimics a harmful species Mimicry Mullerian Mimicry - when two unpalatable species resemble each other inhibit feeding
repellent: volatile components of plant oils that deter herbivores with minimal to no physical contact with plant
some repellents are toxic: anise in fruit flies
some chemicals are constitutive: present in animals at all times
others are induced: feeding triggers release, or synthesized on the spot can be constitutive or induced
constitutive: always present in the plant
induced: reaction to herbivore-caused stress
escape in time
escape in space
growth in locations where plants are not easily found by herbivores
change seasonal growth patterns
reduce the impact herbivores have on their survival and reproduction rates
change their digestibility include:
spines
thrones- hurt or kill animals
hairs
waxy cuticle- first line of defense, sometimes contain toxins
trichomes
sticky glands- trap insects

some trees, like coconuts, protect their fruit with multiple layers grazing animals feed in herds- when predators arrive, they spread out, confusing the predator
minimize noise production
many have keen senses of sight and smell to warn them of predators
use antlers or horns to fight
some hunt in night to make it difficult for predators to find them
use camouflage to change body to environment
some animals are poisonous (i.e. dart frog) or unpleasant-tasting
physical features: i.e. quills on porcupines
chemical releases: i.e. skunks spread an unpleasant smell Animal Defenses Against Predators clumped - clustered around areas such as water or other resources dispersal and survivability account for geographical ranges of species uniformed - evenly spaced around an area carrying capacity - the number of individuals an environment can support. Population Limiting Factors density dependent factors - a factor that influences organisms depending on how crowded those areas are. density independent factors - factors that do not vary with the density of the population Limitation of species to a particular area never have dispersed beyond its current boundaries
pioneers that did spread beyond the boundaries, failed to survive or reproduce
over evolutionary time, the species has returned from a larger range to its present location mutualism (+/+) - when both the host and symbiont benefit from the relationship
ex) bees and plants
ex) plants and humans Symbiosis Factors that determine the number of species that will eventually inhabit the island the rate at which species immigrate to the island
the rate at which a species becomes extinct on the island
the island's size and distance from mainland
smaller islands have a lower immigration rate and higher extinction rates
contain fewer resources and less diverse habitats for colonizing species, increasing the likelihood of competition
closer island will have a higher immigration rate the interaction between two species in close association commensalism (+/0) - when one partner benefits without significantly affecting the other
ex) clownfish and sea anemone
ex) barnacles and whales parasitism (-/-) - when the parasite harms the host
ex) humans and mosquito
ex) dogs and heartworms Biogeography the study of past and present distributions of individual species and entire communities affected by the continental drift - the slow movement of the earth's continents over time
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