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Psychology

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Trevor Hempen

on 19 April 2011

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Transcript of Psychology

Psychology
Trevor Hempen Chapter One
Psycological Science Neuroscience
Chapter Two Chapter Three
Nature and Nuture Chapter Four
The Developing Person Chapter Five
Sensation Chapter Six
Perception Chapter Seven
States of Consciousness Chapter Eight
Learning Chapter Nine
Memory Chapter Ten
Thinking/Language Chapter Eleven
Intelligence Chapter Twelve
Motivation Chapter Thirteen
Emotion Stress
Chapter Fourteen Chapter Fifteen
Personality Chapter Sixteen
Psycological Disorders Chapter Seventeen
Therapy Chapter Eighteen
Social Psycology Limits of Thinking Hindsight Bias
Overconfidence
Confirmation Bias
False Consensus Often called the "I knew it all along" phenomenon We think we know more than we do and overestimate our abilities We tend to notice things that confirm our own beliefs We overestimate the number of people
that agree with our opinions Experiments No experiment is 100% perfect!! Methods for Describing Behavior Case Study: The study/focus of a small group
DANGER
Generalization of few people to many Survey: Usually a short questionare
DANGERS Wording Effects Sampling -Dendrites-
Gather Info from last neuron -Soma-
Command Central -Axon-
Simply adds length -Myelin Sheath-
Protects and magnifies signals -Terminal Buttons-
Transmitt to the next neuron Neurons All or None Principal- The neuron either fires or it doesn't. There is no stopping it! Threshold- The point at which the neuron fires. The Parts Frontal lobe- Planning, judging, humor, personality
Parietal lobe- Long term memorys and face recognition
Occipital lobe- Visual cortex
Temporal lobe- Auditory cortex
Broca's Area- Speech
Wernicke's Area- Receptive language
Motor Cortex- Movement
Somatosensory Cortex- Senses The Brain The Reproductive Advantage Women
-26 Pregnancies
-Generally prefer older males
- Having Kids is a larger investment
- Needs a "well off" partener for support
- Tend to be more career oriented Men
-Can potential have hundreds of children
- Prefer younger females
- Having kids tends to be a minor investment Nature Nuture Is this girl playing with this truck because of her genetic disposition? That is, is she more inclinde to play with atypical boy toys because that was the way she was born? Or is it..... Perhaps instead it is the
way that the girl was raised.
Maybe she only has a dad
and therefore has more
boyish tendancies. Either
way most scientists agree,
it is both Nature and Nuture
that forms the individual. Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational Phenomea Object Permanence Stranger Anxiety & the awarness that an object continues to
exist, even if not percieved. the child shows attachment to parent and anxiety around new people Experiences the world through senses and
actions (looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping). Age Range:
Birth to two years Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Phenomena Pretend Play Egocentrism Language Development Age Range: Two to six years Logical thinking about concrete events- an event that HAS happened Phenomena Conservation The realization that volume and mass stay the same despite changes in the form of the object Age Range:
Seven to eleven years Phenomena Logical thougt about abstract ideas and events Abstract Logic Mature moral reasoning Age Range:
Twelve to adulthood -Optic Nerve: carries information to the brain
-Cornea: completly surrounds the eye, rich with pain receptors
-Retina: light reception, vcontains the rods and cones
-Fovea: point of central focus
-Lens: flexs to sharpen image, accomadation
-Pupil: lets light into the eye
-Iris: colored muscle that controls the pupil
-Blindspot: The optic nerve does not allow a full vision field, instead the brain fills in the missing information
Sight Touch 4 Basic Sensations: Pressure
Pain
Warm
Cold Pain- it is necessary Gate-control theory: neurological
gate in the spinal cord that allows
pain signals to reach the brain Form Perception Figure-ground- the organiztion of visual field objects that stand out from their surroundings Proximity Similarity Continuity Closure Sleep Cycle Selective attention Cocktail Party effect- the ability to attend selectively to only one voice among many Change blindness- so focused on one thing that we dont not see changes happening around us Binocular cues

Retinal desparity- 2 eyes, 2 different images
Convergence- The brain sews the two images into one image Monocular cues

One eye can efficiently see the relative size, interposition, clarity, texture gradience, height, motion, and linear perspective of our world. Awake- relaxed: Alpha waves

Stage 1 -> 5 min -> Hyprogogic sensations ( falling, floating, etc.)

Stage 2 -> 20 min -> Sleep Spindles- rendom neural firings

Stage 3 -> 1-3 min

Stage 4 -> 27-30 min -> deep sleep- Delta waves

Stage 3 -> 1-3 min

Stage 2 -> 20 min

REM sleep -> 10 min -> Brain activates and paralyzes the body during REM Freudian Theory Info. Processing Theory Activation- Synthasis Theory - "Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious"
- Dreams are a way to interpret meanings - The brain is only having random neural firings - Dreans are the stuff from our lives
- REM sleep is the bodys way of organizing
information Hypnosis - a heightened sense of suggestion
- post hymnotic Amnesia -> Forgets things that happen during hypnosis
- Posthypntic suggestion -> a suggested behavior that occurs after hypnosis on cues
- Popularized by Antom Mesmer
- You cannot perform "superhuman" abilities while hypnotized
- Anyone can be hypnotized
- Can alleviate pain Dreams Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning Step One- UCS -------------> UCR
Step Two- NS-----> UCS -----> UCR
Step Three- CS---------------> CR UCS= Unconditioned Stimulus(food)
UCR= Unconditioned Response(salvation)
NS= Neutral Stimulus(bell)
CS= Conditioned Stimulus(bell)
CR= Conditioned Response(salavation) Reinforcement Schedules
1. Partial- does not reward behavior everytime
-Varied Ratio & Interval: reinforces the behavior after random number of responses or varying time periods
2. Continuous- rewards the behavior everytime it is performed
-Fixed Ratio & Interval: reinforces the behavior after a set number of responses or time period Overjustification
-One of the dangers of reinforcement
-Attaching rewards to an already justified activity :Intrinsically motivated:
Doing it because you love it
:Extrinsically motivated:
Doing it for money/reward. If you take away the reward you lose motivation Prototypes: Best representative of a concept
Car-> Mustang
SUV-> Escalade Solving Problems
Algorithms- Step by step, methodical process
Heuristics- Mental shortcuts How we think Problem Solving Obstacles Confirmation Bias- noticing info that confirms our ideas
Fixation- not thinking outside the box
Funtional fixedness- improvising in a situation ex: using a quarter to tighten screw
Avilability Heuristics- making decisions quickly based on prototypes Language Language structure
Phenemes-> basic sounds
Morphemes-> smallest unit of
language that conveys meaning
Grammer:
Semantics- meaning
Syntax- ordering words Language Development
Babbling Stage
One- word stage
Two- word stage
Complete Sentences Noam Chomsky- Believes we have an inborn readiness to learn language Skinner- Believes we learn through
imitation and operant conditioning Intelligence Tests
- The first intel. test was made in 1905 by Alfred Binet
- Lewis Terman (Stanford professor) americanizes the intelligence test
- He calls it the Stanford-Binet Howard Gardner: Multiple intelligences
Linguistic-> words
Logical -> mathematical
Spatial -> geometry
Musical-> pitches
Bodily-> Kinesthetic
Intrapersonal-> deep thinkers
Interpersonal-> relationships Mental Retardation Average Genius Dull Gifted Principles of test construction 1) Standardization
- Compared to pretested population
2) Reliability
- Consistent results
-Test-Retest reliability
3) Validity
- is the test measure what its supposed to?
- content validity
- predictive validity Motivation- energizes behavior and directs it towards the goal Drives vs Incentives Drive reduction theory- psycological/ phisiological drives our behavior to fufill Homo Stasis- the bodys drive to keep itself balanced Incentives- entices us to do better for the reward Optimal Arousal- well fed animal will explore enviroments and relationships (Maslows Hierarchy) We will fufill the bottom of the pyramid before we move up it. The ultimate goal is Self-Actualization Sexual Motivation Human Sexual Response Cycle
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution (males) Erotic Plasticity
- Males tend to be rigid in sexuality
- Females eroticism is muxh more flexible
- Womans sexuality more fluid and changeable
- Men are not aroused by homosexual imagery
- Women can be aroused by hetero & Homosexual imagery Sexual Orientation
3-4% of males are homosexual
1-2% of females are homosexual
about 2.5% combined total Evidence of Homosexuality
-Cell Cluster near hypothalmus is larger in homosexual males
- Corpus Collosum is larger in homosexual males
- Spatial Abilities of homosexual males resembles that of straight females
- Finger print ridges resemble females
- Finger length resembles that of a females
- Hairswirl pattern tends to go the coounterclockwise Theories of Emotion
James Lange theory- physical arousal leads to emotion
Cannon Bard theory- physical arousal and emotion happen simultaneouly
Schachter two-factor theory- physical arousal and a conscious awareness of being happy Physiology of Emotion
Sympathetic- arousal
Parasympathetic- calming
1. Respiration increases
2. Persperation increases
3. Heart Rate Increases
4. Pupils Enlarge
5. Digestion Decreases
6. Liver pours extra sugar into blood
7. Adrenaline Arousal on Tasks
Moderate arousal is best on most
Easy task= high arousal is good
Hard task= low arousal is good Expressed Emotion
Staring Couples- Increases attraction
Angry Faces- easier to notice
Shy vs Outgoing- shy people recognize emotion easier
Abused Children- better at recognizing angry faces
Women vs Men- woman show and recognize emotion easier
Lying- pitch, rate, and volume indicate liers Stress is how we cope with
threats and challenges The 3 major stressors 1. Catastrophes
2. Significant Life Changes
3. Daily Hassles G.A.S.
Generalized Adaption Syndrome 1. Alarm
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion Hans Selye Perceived Control- Experiment
1. Executive Rat -> Could shut off the electricity
2. Subordinate Rat -> Could not shut off electricity The Executive rat outlived and was healthier than the other rat because it could contorl its enviroment. Personality- characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Freud Personality Iceberg The Psycosexual Stages
1. Oral: 0-18 months
2. Anal: 18-36 months
3. Phallic: 3-6 years
4. Latency: 6-puberty
5. Genital: puberty onwards Psycoanalytical Perspective
1) Free association-> just talking about anything
2) Resistance-> the therapist notices things that are not talked about and pushes them
3) Transferance-> Freud becomes the mom/dad, client may form an attraction
4) Insight-> Realization of problem and it goes away
Defense Mechanisms
1. Repression- forgetting threating thoughts
2. Regression- person begins to act like younger self
3. Reaction Formation- Homophobes who are unsure of their own sexuality
4. Projection- The thief thinks everyone else is a thief
5. Rationalization- coming up with self-justifying explanations
6. Displacement- Taking it out on an unintended person
7. Sublimation- Performing the unacceptable impulse in an acceptable way Therapy Humanistic Perspective-Ideas
1) Focus on the conscious
2) People are good
3) Focuses on good, healthy and successful people
4) Future and goals are important
5) Therapy-> Person centered-> goals and obstacles-> Active listening 4 criteria
Atypical- not normal
Maladaptive- hinders survival
Unjustifiable- unjustifiable
Disturbing- to self and others Medical Model- views disorder as a sickness, and that we can treat it Classifying Disorders
DSM IV- TR: Has 400 disorders
DSM V: Has 400+ disorders

Dangers:
-too many disorders
-disorders come down to a vote
-labeling effects Anxiety Disorders
1) Generalized Anxiety Disorder
2) Panic Attack
3) Phobia
4) OCD Schizophrenia Symptoms
1) disorganized thinking
2) distured perceptions
3) inappropriate emotions Subtypes
-Paranoid
-Disorganized
-Catatonic
-Undifferentiated
-Residual Storage
Iconic- fleeting photographic memory
Echoic- fleeting auditory memory
short term- 7-9bits for a short time
long term- essentially limitless 3 sins of forgetting
Absent mindedness-> mind is elsewhere
Transience->
unused info fades
Blocking->
we cant get info out 3 sins of distorting
Misattribution->
confusing source of info
Suggestibility->
misinfo distorts memory
Bias->
opinions tend to cloud memory Memorization
Method of Loci- memorizing based on location
Acronyms- using first letters to remember info.
Chunking- Breaking up large bits of info into smaller ones
Heirarchies- Prioritizing info using a chart
Peg-word System- 1=bun, 2=shoe, etc Pscyoanalysis- Freud
Problems are in the patients childhood. The patient is supposed to feel better after acknowledgment.

The Steps
1. Free Association
2. Resistance
3. Transference
4. Insight Humanistic- Maslow & Rogers
Focuses on the future goals of the patient. The therapy is completely client-centered which involves active listening. Behavior Therapies
- Works well on anxiety disordeers
- Doesnt care about inner problems
- Doesn't care about self-awareness
- THE BEHAVIOR IS THE PROBLEM
- Utilizes learning principles-> Classical and Operant Cognitive
- All about changing the way a person thinks
- The patient is instructed to relabel thoughts as a behavior problem and that they know it should be an ignored response

Group
-Surrounding sufferers w/ people who have the same problems
-Changes the persons dynamics Attribution Theory- Conservatives vs Liberals
Conservatives- poverty is the persons problem
Liberals- poverty is a social problem -Attitude-
beliefs and feelings that predispose our reactions to things Do attitudes affect actions?
Yes if.....
1) Outside influences are small
2) Attitude is relevent to the behavior
3) We are aware of our attitude Do actions affect attitude?
1) People tend to believe in what they stand for
2) Foot-in-the-door phenomenon-> makes a small demand first then progressively gets to larger demands Conformity and Obedience
- Behavior is contagious
The Chameleon effect- we are mimickers of behavior Group Influence
* Social Loafing- people tend to become "lazier" when they are in groups
* Social Facilitation- people speed up from an intersection 15% faster when someone is next to them
* Deindividualization- abandoning social restraint in the presence of a group Observational Learning- Bandura
modeling- observing/imitating behavior
mirror neurons- fire when we observe behavior

Albert bandura tested this theory
in the Bobo doll experiments THE END
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