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Period 5 Review WHAP
Transcript of Period 5 Review WHAP
c. 1750- c. 1900
Enlightenment Sparks Changes in Gov't
Nationalism Leads to Revolts and Political Changes
Effects of Industrial Rev
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution Motors On
Social Effects of Industrial Rev
With expanding global markets came businesses that operated on a global scale.
1st examples: British East India Company and Dutch EIC.
US United Fruit Corporation
: owned huge banana plantations throughout Central America and shipped to US and EUR
So much trade --> gold standard for world currencies.
Causes of Imperialism
: new transportation and weapons overwhelmed Africa.
: competition to see who could get the most colonies and new IT and GY wanted to prove themselves as world powers.
: not only gov'ts, but transnational corps involved and put pressure on gov'ts to claim to markets and resources.
Social Darwinism aka "White Man's Burden"
: from Kipling, and the idea that Europe was helping bring them tech, education, medicine, and Christianity.
JUSTIFICATION FOR IMPERIALISM.
Characteristics of Imperialism
: Before 19th cent Euro lacked ability to move into Africa's interior. Euro did participate in slave trade, but only VOC (DEIC) had a colony in Cape Town. 1800s BR starts to send colonists to S. AFR (Boer War) and FR followed looking for colonies in NW AFR. Belgium took the Congo after Leopold's Congolese genocide..
: 1884-85, divided Africa into colonies. Only Ethiopia and Liberia independent.
: "jewel in the crown" under BEIC rule first, but after Indian Rebellion 1857 (grease), Queen Victoria placed India under direct rule (raj).
: idea of Manifest Destiny, Louisiana Purchase of 1803, Texas, purchase of Alaska, annex Hawaii. Defeat of SP in SP-AM War 1898 gave US Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Investment in LA- Monroe Doc and Roos Corr.
: 1871 a country. Given several colonies in Africa at Berlin Conf. and parts of Marshall, Solomon, and W. Samoa.
: wanted part of CH (in competition w/ RU and their Trans-Siberian RR. Sino-JP War: claimed KOR. Russo-JP War: claimed Manchuria.
Results of Imperialism
: Anglo-Zulu Wars-- Zulu started to win, but British came back in the end. Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement- thought killing cattle would release evil Euro spirits and get them to leave. Didn't work --> famine.
: Taiping Rebellion- anti-Qing as they weren't able to defend against Euro (Jesus' little bro). Boxer Rebellion- anti-foreigners, led to US Open Door Policy.
--> Abolition movement to end slave trade. Eventually will be used to help decolonization next era.
Causes of Migration
Rural to Urban Migration
Increase in pop'ln from 2nd Ag Rev, better transportation (roads, trains). Better job opportunities for specialized professionals.
Job opportunities year-round whereas lack of consistent work in home society.
Japanese farmers worked in Pacific island farms during off season in Japan.
Indentured Servitude continued (Chinese and Indian labor), convict labor in Australia. Caucasian tsunami from Western and Eastern Europe to Americas for job opp and religious freedom. Jews moving into E. Euro from Russia due to pogroms. New steamships helped to facilitate transoceanic migration.
Effects of Migration
Changes in demographics: African men working in large plantations or cities, leaving women to work in local farms and mines.
Creation of ethnic enclaves: create mini versions of home societies in new settlements.
Chinatowns and Little Italies in North America.
Resentment against Migrants: Chinese Exclusionary Act 1882, White Australia Act 1901.
Population shifts: 60 mill Europeans leave (1/2 to US), 2.5 mill leave CH (US and S. AM)/
45 million migrated from South Asia to SE Asia
50 million left Russia for JP, Manchuria, Siberia, and C. Asia.
Harty, AP World History
Industrialization and Its Effects
: Increased wealth from New World gold and silver --> BR giving monetary prizes for efficient ways to transport goods, grow crops, or defeat enemies.
: BR also had natural resources: coal, iron, and timber (American colonies), second agricultural revolution, rivers and canals.
Econ and Soc Mobility
: in BR you could move up the social ladder by developing a money-making invention. Also banks loaned money to trusted inventors.
: BR had a lot of skilled workers, and after enclosure of land many farmers forced into cities to find work. This urbanization led to many able and willing workers for factories.
Beginning of the Industrial Revolution
: BR inventions w/ textiles first (water frame, spinning jenny) which led to first factories near rivers (waterwheels).
: by 1760, now were free to build factories away from rivers, and could improve rate of production. This increased use of coal and oil --> fossil fuels revolution.
Fossil Fuels Rev
: Transition to dependence on coal and oil to fuel factories and transportation.
: US steamboat (no more sails), BR train (no more horses)
: lighter and more flexible than iron. Steel factories began popular in W. Euro --> US, JP, RU.
: Cotton gin, adopted BR-style factories in NE, transcontinental RRs, Carnegie Steel. By 1900 leader of Industrial Rev (more resources)
: US sent Comm. Perry to open JP in 1850s, --> Meiji Restoration JP.
Meiji Restoration = Industrialization and Westernization.
JP gov't had CLOSE ties to factory corporations and often built factories and them sold them while maintaining influence. Led to creation of Zaibatsus (mega corporations)
: Smaller scale, still mostly agrarian. Trans Siberian Railroad.
W. Europe capitalism via Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations in 1776.
Labor Unions: response to working conditions in Industrial cities- wanted better conditions, hours, and wages.
Led to rise of Marxism (Socialism then Communism).
Socialism= government owns key industries.
Communism= government owns all industries to create a classless society.
Russia and Meiji Japan both had governments who directed industrialization instead of private sphere.
Muhammad Ali nationalized cotton in Egypt
China: Self-Strengthening movement.
Ottoman: Tanzimat reforms.
Families moved into cities for work, over time wages increased to become a "man's job." Also efficiency increased --> women and children leave workforce (except coal mines).
New social class= Middle Class. Became a major political and economic force.
Women were expected to marry and take care of the home. Cult of Domesticity. By the end of the era, women began to replace men as teachers, secretaries, and phone operators.
Urbanization led to population boom, but deplorable living conditions and later reforms.
Effects on Latin America: minimal, so social structures and gender roles remained the same. Mass migrations to Latin America from Europe for economic opportunity. (Japan to South America)
Second Industrial Revolution
c. 1850- end of era (and past WWI)
Focus was on internal combustion (gas or diesel) engines, and more focus on steel, electricity, science, and medicine.
: telegraph, telephone, and radio.
: electric trolley, subway, automobile (cars were more experimental, not major invention in this era).
Science and Medicine
: modern chemistry --> fertilizers at end of era. Smallpox and rabies vaccines, clean drinking water, aspirin, etc.
Charles Darwin and natural selection --> Social Darwinism (superior races must naturally defeat inferior ones)
Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform
Individual equality: Voltaire and Rousseau said all men created equal.
Individual liberty: "natural rights", abolish slavery.
Limited gov'ts: Locke and Rousseau's Social Contracts, wanted a Republic. Adam Smith wanted to end mercantilism (came up with capitalism).
Documents based on Enlight= Bolivar's Jamaica Letter, France's DORMAC, US Decl of Ind and Constitution
first of the revs, helped start all other revs b/c it proved a group of people could overthrow their oppressors and establish a representative gov't based on Enlightenment principles.
Liberty, equality, fraternity
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen
Many changes in gov't during Rev.
Const. Monarch --> Republic --> Reign of Terror --> Consuls -->Napoleon as Emperor.
During Rev many monarchs were fearful of revolts, so tried to reinstate monarchy in FR. This led Napoleon Bonaparte to be a war hero before his rule. As Emperor he went on to conquer most of Europe, made the mistake of invading RU in winter, and was eventually exiled.
Congress of Vienna: reorganized Euro boundaries to keep FR in check, even creating new nations.
Slave revolt against FR during Napoleon's rule in Saint Domingue (Haiti).
Led by Toussaint Louverture, it was successful. Created a Republic and ended large plantations for small farms.
Latin America Revolutions
Inspired by successful US, FR, and Haitian Revs.
Led by upper-class Creole elites- including Simon Bolivar- the won their independence from SP one nation at a time.
This led to the decline of SP as a world power.
Elite remained in power after rev, but had difficulty creating stable gov'ts.
Although along with the other revolutions women's rights were talked about, largely set aside until next era.
The Effects of the Industrial Revolution- Revolts, Reforms, and Famines
Pressure in cities and factories
Overcrowded cities --> tenements, disease, and unemployment. Affected lower class most, but the middle class affect political change for them.
Calls for Reform
1820s-1840s Euro activists rally behind urban poor for increased pay and safer working conditions.
Led to formation of labor unions.
1848 Communist Manifesto critiqued capitalism and blamed it for the plight of the working class. Wanted classless society where all people are equal.
Effects of effects? Middle Class activism led to police services, clean drinking water, and more housing.
Irish Famine: Mid 19th cent, IRE dependent on potato and its famine led to 1 million deaths and 1 million migrations to US.
Did lead to increased gov't programs for poor.
Nationalist movements in LA threw off Euro powers and --> people in Euro trying to use nationalism to overthrow outside oppressors.
Greece broke from Ottoman.
Poles, Italians, and Slavs tried and failed to break from Austrian empire.
2 nations formed w/ strong nationalist ferver- GY and IT
Africa also showing signs of nationalist unrest. Egypt best example. OTT, BR, and FR all had stakes in Egypt. FR started the Suez Canal, but then BR invaded EG to "help them rule."
India had the India National Congress and the Muslim League that were working towards independence.
SP and PORT lose power due to independence movements and SP's loss in the SP-AM War.
Ottoman Empire starting to shrink (Greece independent) and lost some Balkan regions as well as new Arab unrest in the Middle East (wanted to be independent from OTT). Was also weakened from the Crimean War against RU (BR and FR backed the OTTs and won).
Tried to westernize w/
which started to reform gov't and transition into a constitutional gov't (doesn't last but is revived w/ Young Turks.) Eventually fall after WWI.
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