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Foundations and Principles of American Democracy

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Transcript of Foundations and Principles of American Democracy

Joseph
Decreux
Unit 1: Foundations and Principles of American Democracy
Citizenship
Civics is… the study of the rights and duties of citizens

Citizens are
...Community members who
share a common history, customs, and values
and who
agree to follow a set of rules
and
accept a government’s authority

How does someone become a citizen?

1.
By Birth-
Born in
* Any of the 50 states, Washington D.C., an American Territory or any U.S. Military Base.
* Born to American parents

or if 1 parent is a citizen who has actually LIVED (or is living) in the U.S.
* Born on U.S. soil
(Not children of foreign diplomats)

2.
Naturalization Process
* File a Declaration of Intention with the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
* Live in the U.S. at least five years
(or 3 years for people married to U.S. citizens)
* File a citizenship application
-18 years old
-A resident of their state for 3 months
*
Meet and interview with an INS official and
take a citizenship exam
* Attend a ceremony and pledge an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and the U.S. Constitution
*
Sign an official document

Coming to America
- Aliens: non citizens living in the U.S. for a period of time

- Immigrants: people who have moved here permanently and plan to become citizens. The US imposes quotas (set numbers of people allowed to enter): only about 675,000 each year;
countries are limited in the number of people they may send

Lotteries
- Visas: documents granting permission to work, study, or visit a country for a period of time.

- Green Cards: documents granting permanent resident status (not citizenship) to an individual.
It or a copy must be carried by the individual at all times!
https://www.uscis.gov/green-card/green-card-through-job


ALIENS
Legal Aliens- Hold jobs, own property, attend school and receive other government services. They pay taxes and are entitled to legal protection. They may NOT vote in elections or run for office, serve on juries or hold most government jobs
MUST carry their Green Card at all times

Illegal Aliens: people residing in the U.S. illegally.
Have been refused citizenship, never applied, allowed paperwork to expire, or cross the border illegally.
Face deportation (relocation to their home country) if found

How could I lose my citizenship?
The federal government can take it away
if
*
naturalized citizenship was obtained improperly or you are convicted of treason against the US
*
You serve in the military of another country as an officer or while at war with the US
* You may voluntarily give up your citizenship
by becoming a citizen of another country. Dual Citizenship: citizenship of two countries at the same time
https://travel.state.gov/content/visas/en.html
Settling America
Mercantilism
A country’s power depends on its wealth (gold)
Nations should sell more goods than they buy
More exports + fewer imports = More gold = More power

Colonization – The English in America

Colony: a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere
Established for trade, money, power, competition, or as sources of cheap raw materials

Types:

1. Royal Colony
2. Proprietary Colony
3. Charter Colony

Royal Colony
Colonies under direct control of the King of England

Proprietary Colony
Colonies granted or entrusted to Proprietors or Governors who ruled in place of the king

Charter Colony
A colony founded by a group or individual who applied to the king for a charter
Charter - A written document from the king that grants land and the authority to set up a local government in a colony
First granted to the Virginia Company


Why come to America?

To own
land
Escape overpopulation
Economic opportunity
Religious freedom

Jamestown
1st permanent English settlement in America
(settled in 1607)

Settled by the Virginia company of London
Joint-Stock Company – Company provided money for the trip, and expected the settlement to make money for them (mostly by growing tobacco)

Government in the Virginia colony
1619:
Settlers created the
House of Burgesses
1st elected assembly in a British colony
Legislature
(based on Parliament)
Representative Democracy
22 elected Burgesses
Beginning of colonial self-government

Plymouth
Pilgrim – Anyone making a voyage for religious purposes
1620 – Pilgrims arrive in Massachusetts and found the Plymouth colony
Escape the Church of England to
worship freely

Government in Plymouth
1620
– Pilgrim signed the
Mayflower Compact
Created rules for governing the colony
Made Plymouth a direct democracy
All white males could vote and majority ruled

Both based on English common law

Virginia
House of Burgesses
Representative Democracy
But only for white males
Make $$$

Plymouth
Mayflower Compact
Direct Democracy
But only for white males
Religious freedom

Other important governments
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Written in 1638
First written constitution in America
Outlined exactly how the government would run & what rights individuals had

The Colonies Map Acivity

Read pgs 36-49 in you text. On your map, label each state and choose one color for each Section of Colonies. On the back of your map explain the climate and economy of each section and why each colony was founded. Who or what group founded them?

New England Colonies:
- Connecticut
- Massachusetts
- New Hampshire
- Rhode Island
Middle Colonies:
- Delaware
- New Jersey
- New York
- Pennsylvania
Southern Colonies:
- Georgia
- Maryland
- North Carolina
- South Carolina
- Virginia
Types of Government
What does government do?

Keeps Order
Making & Enforcing laws (Police)
Settling Conflicts (Courts)
Provides Security
Maintains armed forces & agencies to defend citizens & their land from enemies

Provides
Public Services
Libraries, parks, hospitals, water & transportation systems, postal system…
These require cooperation & coordination
Sets Public Policy
(a plan of action to achieve community goals)
Creates a
budget (a plan for collecting & spending money)
Foreign relations, international trade, travel & military agreements

Types of government
* Autocracy: One person has supreme power (dictatorship)

- Cuba, China, Korea
* Theocracy: Rule by someone (or a group) claiming divine authority
-Egypt, Ancient Rome, Maya, Inca
Currently- Islamic States, Iranian Govermnment and the Vatican (head leader is the Pope)
* Oligarchy: Rule by a select few

* Monarchy: Rule by King, Queen, or Emperor (hereditary)
Limited: Rulers are restricted by a constitution
Absolute: No restrictions on a ruler’s power

* Democracy: Citizens hold the power to rule
~ Direct: All citizens meet to debate government matters and vote
~ Representative: Citizens elect officials to make laws and govern on their behalf. Also known as a Republic.

* Anarchy: state of lawlessness due to the absence or inefficiency of government
The 13 Colonies
Mercantilism
The idea that a country’s power is determined by its wealth (gold)
To gain more gold
Parliament passed the Navigation Acts (1651)
Forced English colonies in America to trade only with England
Mercantilism put into practice

Religion
Religious dissenters
Any Christian religious group that had different beliefs than those of the Church of England (Anglican Church)

Puritans
Quakers
Catholics

Puritans
Calvinists who rebelled against the Church of England
Believed in
strict moral regulation, extensive bible study, and emphasized education for everyone (who was Puritan)
The Pilgrims were Puritans
1630 – John Winthrop lead a group of Puritans to found Massachusetts
The Massachusetts colony was a
theocracy
Salem witch trials

Quakers
AKA “The Religious Society of Friends”
Founded in 1652 by George Fox
Didn’t think people needed the clergy
Pacifists
1681 – William Penn founded Pennsylvania colony as a safe haven for Quakers

Catholics
Oldest Christian sect
Stress ritual, church hierarchy
Most of Europe is Catholic at this time
1530s – England split from the catholic church
Those who remained with the Catholic church faced persecution
1634 – Lord Baltimore founds the Maryland colony as a safe haven for Catholics

Other
1640 – Roger Williams
was exiled from Plymouth for disagreeing with the Puritans
Moved south and
founded Rhode Island
Only colony
created expressly for
religious freedom
1st place in America to make
slavery illegal (1652)

Slaves
Brought to America by force
Slave for life (unless freed)
Had no legal rights
African

Indentured Servants
Chose to sign a contract to work in exchange for passage to America
Free after 3-7 years
Had legal rights (but not many)
Usually Irish, Scottish, English, or German

Slaves & Indentured Servants
Can be bought and sold
Often mistreated:
Bad food and clothing
Poor housing
Backbreaking labor
Very high mortality rates

Triangular Trade Route

Middle Passage
The portion of the triangular trade in which Slaves were carried across the Atlantic Ocean
Ships were made for cargo, not people. So they were
crowded and inhumane
Took 2-5 months
Disease and death
were very common
Mortality rate ~ 25%

Economy
Plantation System
Plantation - Large estates or farm
Cash crops grown are sold in distant markets, not for local consumption
Goal: $$$
Plantations
Usually had ~ 20 slaves
There were around 100 plantation owners that owned over 100 slaves (1800s)
Even at its peak, less than 1/3 of southern families owned slaves
Lead up to Revolution
1754 - 1776
French and Indian War
1754 - War between France and England over disputed territory in the Ohio River Valley

Albany Plan of Union
1754 – Plan to form a union of colonies for defense during the war
Proposed by Ben Franklin
Ultimately rejected, but was the
1st time any colonies ever considered joining together
for any reason


French and Indian War:

What’s in this territory worth fighting over?

Ends with the Treaty of Paris (1763)
George Washington emerges as a war hero (even though he surrendered)

Aftermath of the war
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited English settlements past the Appalachian Mountains
Gave England time to organize
their new empire
Meant to fix English/Indian
relations

Aftermath of the war
England had to pay for the war

Stamp Act (1765)
Tax on all printed materials, paid directly to England
1st direct tax on Americans imposed by the English

Quartering Act - American colonists are forced to house and feed English troops in America

Reaction?
Boycotts of English goods
Sons of Liberty – underground organization that opposed the Stamp Act by intimidating English stamp agents and organizing boycotts (sometimes by force)

Stamp Act Congress
Representatives from 9 of the 13 colonies met wrote a letter to King George III
Letter:
No taxation without representation
1st time a majority of the colonies joined together to oppose English rule
Result of letter: Parliament repealed the Stamp Act!!
!

BUT
Parliament passed the Declaratory Act the same day
Gave Parliament legal authority to tax the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”

Townshend Acts
Tax on exported goods (Navigation Act: all imports are coming from England)
Writs of Assistance – general search warrants, gave customs officials broad powers to search houses and businesses for smuggled goods.

Again…
Colonists boycott English goods

Parliament repeals the taxes (except on tea)
A Quick English History
1215 AD

Barons
are very unhappy with King John.
Just lost the War of Bouvines (against France)
Raised taxes (to pay for the war)
Pissed off the Pope
So the barons marched into London and
forced King John to sign the Magna Carta

The Magna Carta
“Great Charter”

Protected barons’ power
Established rule of law
Law applies to EVERYONE (even kings)
Gave rights to landowners
Equal treatment under the law
Trial by peers
1st time a
king was forced to limit his power to protect the rights of others
Began a tradition of guaranteed basic rights

Kings had a “Great Council”
Assisted with decisions
Consisted of archbishops, bishops, abbots, barons, earls

Who were these people?

Nobility – high status people who were often given land or titles in exchange for loyalty or service to the king
Hereditary – passed from father to son
Clergy – Worked for the church

By 1215 AD the “Great Council” had become known as the “Parliament”
~1300 The Parliament had become a legislature
Legislature – Law making body
Common Law – Law determined by precedent rather than a legislature
Precedent – Previous court decisions

1st English legislature
1688
English Bill of Rights
King needs Parliament’s approval to tax
Parliament can hold free elections
Right to a fair trial
No cruel or unusual punishment
1st time Parliament had more power than the King (and it would stay this way)

3 Important Firsts

* Magna Carta – 1st time a king was forced to limit his power to protect the rights of others

* Parliament – 1st English Legislature

* English Bill of Rights – 1st time Parliament had more power than the king
A Quick English History 2.0
The Enlightenment
-
philosophical movement
Mid 1600 – 1789 (French Revolution)
Focus on critical
questioning of tradition
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan (1651) Chapter XIV

Social Contract Theory
People give up some rights to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order.

I give up my right to kill you, as long as you give
up your right to kill me.
Other important Enlightenment ideas
* Separation of powers between branches of government (Baron de Montesquieu, 1748)
* Checks and balances: keep one branch of government from becoming too powerful (Also Montesquieu, 1748)
* Popular Sovereignty: the power lies with the people (Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1762)

Now onto AMERICA!!!
Salem Witch Trials
Triangular Trade Route
Middle Passage
Slave Population Density 1790
French and Indian War Intro
Boston Massacre
People in Massachusetts especially upset about Townsend Acts
Boston one of the biggest ports in the colonies

Townsend Acts & boycotts hurt businesses in the Boston harbor
Rioting caused more troops to be stationed in the city

1770 - A group of British soldiers was being harassed by a mob of colonists
Fired their guns into the crowd
(show vid clip)

Tea Act
1773 – Gave the British East India Company a monopoly on tea in America by allowing them to lower their price on tea and undercut the Colonial merchants (Didn’t have to pay the Tea Tax)
Boston Tea Party






So…
Parliament passed the Coercive Acts
AKA The Intolerable Acts
Closed the Boston harbor entirely
Parliament took control of Massachusetts government
Disrupted Massachusetts Justice System

Another Quartering Act
Tried to make an example of Boston
Colonists believed their natural rights were being violated
So again…
Representatives from 12 of the 13 colonies met and decided to…
Boycott English goods (again…)
Send a letter to King George III (again…)
Also known as the 1st Continental Congress
Decided to meet again in a year

Battle of Lexington/Concord
April 19, 1775 – A group of 700 British soldiers are given secret orders to capture military supplies belonging to the Massachusetts colonial militia
The militia gets wind of this and decides to fight them instead
British troops beaten badly and retreat to Boston
Battle of Lexington/Concord
“shot heard round the world”
Beginning of open military conflict with the British
http://www.history.com/videos/colonists-protest-british-policies#colonists-protest-british-policies
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#bet-you-didnt-know-revolutionary-war
Bet You Didn't Know!
Colonists Protests British Policies
Causes of The Americn Revolution
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/american-revolution-history/videos/the-sons-of-liberty-and-the-boston-tea-party
"Sons of Liberty"
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Massacre
The indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people (or animals)

Boston Massacre
Propaganda - a form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position
Massacre
The indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people (or animals)
The Mayflower Voyage
Activity: Create your own Government
1. Settlement name
2. What is the purpose of your settlement?
3. What do you plan on doing to get your settlement started?
4. Will you have a military? How will you use it?
5. What type of government will you have and how will your government work? (1/2 page)

Declaring Independance 1775-1776

2nd Continental Congress
May 1775- Representatives from the colonies met again to discusswhat to do about the British
*Patriots- Those who favored separation from Britain
*Loyalists- Those who wanted to remain with Britain (Torries)

2nd Continental Congress
*Decided to create a
Continental Army
out of various militia units
*
Olive Branch Petition- Sent to King George III as a last chance for peace, as long as he treated them fairly
*King George III rejected the petition and declared the colonies to be in open rebellion

http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/30138-assignment-discovery-thomas-paine-and-common-sense-video.htm

Common Sense
*January 10,
1776 Thomas Paine publishes a pamphlet titled "Common Sense"
*Presented a very persuasive argument for American Independence
*It was "Common Sense" that America should be independent from Britain
*Persuaded many Americans to support the Patriots.

Arguments of Common Sense:
*It was absurd for an island to rule a continent
*America was not a "British nation"; it was composed of influences and peoples from all of Europe.
*Being a part of Britain wold drag America into unnecessary European wars.
*Many of the colonists left England to escape English rule
*Britain ruled the colonies for its own benefit, and did not consider the best interests of the colonists in governing them.

2nd Continental Congress
*By 1776 more representatives had been persuaded to side with Patriots
-Common Sense, growing Patriot sympathy
*Comgress began preparing for independence
Appointed Thomas Jefferson to write up a letter declaring their break from Britain
-Approved on July 4th, 1776
-Not signed by everyone until a month later

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/thomas-jefferson/videos/jefferson-writes-declaration-of-independence

Declaration of Independence

Page 60
*Preamble
*Declaration of Natural Rights
"Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happines"
*List of Grievances
Resolution of Indepenence by the United States
Declaration of Independence
Revolution 1776 - 1783

Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
1775
*Lord Dunmore – Governor of Virginia
*Still loyal to the King
*Rebellion had just started – Lack of British troops
*Declared that any slave who ran away from a patriot and join the British army would gain their freedom
*About 800 slaves escaped and enlisted
The War

Important Battles/Events
*Lexington & Concord
*Bunker Hill
*Trenton
*Saratoga
*Valley Forge
*Treaty of Alliance
*Yorktown

After Lexington/Concord the British are fortified in Boston while the colonial militia has surrounded the city.
British army received reinforcements by boat and decided to march out of Boston
Colonial militia found out and fortified itself at Bunker & Breed’s hills and waited for the British troops
Bunker Hill - June 17, 1775
Ultimately the British troops won the battle


British losses: 226 dead 828 wounded
Colonial losses: 140 dead 450 wounded
Pyrrhic victory - a victory at a devastating cost

Redcoats
Regular British army troops
Also called “lobsterbacks”

Hessians
Hired troops from Germany and Russia
~30,000
Made up a quarter of British troops in America

ADVANTAGES:
Colonial Militias
-International support
-Local sources of supplies and manpower
-More familiar with the land

British Army
-Trained Army
-Better weapons
-Powerful Navy
-Better organized

DISADVANTAGES:
Colonial Militia
-Unorganized
-Poorly trained
-$$$ problems

British Army
-Troops had to come from across the ocean
-So did communications/
orders
-And supplies
-Harder to maintain control of an area

Trenton
December 25,
1776 (Christmas)
Washington and his troops snuck up on Hessian soldiers in Trenton and surrounded them in the middle of the night
After brief fighting, the
Hessians surrendered
~1000 troops captured
Although a small victory, it
boosted moral and kept the army going

Saratoga
September – October 1777
1st major American victory
Turning point in the war
After the battle, France recognized America as a sovereign nation

Treaty of Alliance - March 17, 1778
France promised to defend Americans from the British
Sent troops to America
Used their Navy to cut off British supplies and attack British positions
Gave 10 million dollar loan to America for the war

Valley Forge
Winter of 1777 – 1778
Washington decided to camp in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
Particularly harsh winter
Allowed Washington to train his troops
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
Emerged as a unified professionally trained army

Siege of Yorktown
With France’s assistance the United States began winning the war
Most British troops (under general Cornwallis) had retreated to Yorktown, Virginia
American army surrounded Yorktown and France’s Navy made sure they could not receive supplies
After ~2 weeks of bombing and some fighting
Cornwallis surrendered

Siege of Yorktown-October 1781
END OF THE WAR

Treaty of Paris
September 3, 1783
Ended the Revolutionary War
Forced England to recognize The United States of America as a sovereign country
Amerian Revolution
Battle of Bunker Hill (?)
Battle of Trenton
Battle of Saratoga
George Washington at Valley Forge
Corwallis Surrenders
"Because the condition of man is a condition of war of every one against
every one, in which case every one is governed by his own reason, and
there is nothing he can make use of that may not be a help unto him in
preserving his life against his enemies; it follows that in such a condition
every man has a right to every thing, even to one another's body. And
therefore, as long as this natural right of every man to every thing endure,
there can be no security to any man, how strong or wise he be, of living out
the time which nature ordinarily allows men to live… a man be willing,
when others are so too, as far forth as for peace and defense of himself he
shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be
contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other
men against himself. For as long as every man has this right, of doing
anything he like; so long are all men in the condition of war."
~Thomas Hobbes

Indian Massacre of 1622
Mountain Meadows Massacre 1857
Tiananmen Square Massacre 1989
Virginia Tech Massacre 2007
Boston Massacre 1770



"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
~The Constitution
Amendment XIV, Section 1
1. What is Civics?

2. What is a citizen?
http://www.uscis.gov/citizenship/quiz/learners/study-test/study-materials-civics-test/naturalization-self-test-1
Think you can pass a Naturalization test?
Try it...
Even though Iran has a President to administer policy, he answers to the Supreme Leader (or Rahbar), Murtaza Janmohammad a Shia Muslim cleric who acts as the ultimate head of state and government.

In 1886, my ancestors decided to share our power with an elected group, and drafted a document limiting our family’s power. Today, this system remains in place.

In general, the term "direct democracy" usually refers to citizens making policy and law decisions in person, without going through representatives and legislatures.  Until recently, this worked for scores of communities, but low attendance at many modern town meetings has raised questions about whether they are truly democratic. 

We, a racial minority, controlled our country for more than one hundred years, unfairly denying the racial majority opportunities for education and financial success.

http://gloria.tv/?media=359763&language=KiaLEJq2fBR
Obama's Immigration Plan
www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrvpZxMfKaU
http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/supreme-court-consider-obama-immigration-rules-n497356
Current State of the Immigration Executive Action
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2128.html
Governments by Country
Full transcript