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Chapter 16: Attempts at Liberty
Transcript of Chapter 16: Attempts at Liberty
Seeds of unrest and turmoil under the surface
Philosophes emphasized freedom, yet France was ruled by an absolute monarch
People hoping for reform in government
Constitutional Convention 1787:
Delegates decided on three branches of government.
Established principles of federalism:
This gave specified powers to national government and reserved all other powers for state governments.
Framers stressed popular sovereignty.
Constitution adopted in 1789.
Course of the War:
British dominance in the beginning.
Strengthened American cause.
Turning point when American forces won at Saratoga:
Caused French to support Americans.
Eventually Spanish and Dutch would join Americans as well.
Attitude Toward War:
Did not want a war, yet believed their English rights had been violated.
Some remained loyal to Britain.
Divided on their views:
Some believed in loyalty to elected representatives in colonies, while other believed their first loyalty was to Britain.
Opposition to Parliamentary acts led to the Boston Tea Party:
Done as a protest against new tea tax.
Port was closed and Parliament imposed Martial Law.
Opposed by Colonists because it was seen as a threat to their religious and political freedom.
Ideal society failed:
Later generations professed, but did not possess religious conviction.
Others who settled in North America:
Irish, Scottish, German, Dutch, French:
Number of divided colonies began to appear:
New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, &Southern Colonies developed their own lifestyle.
Even though divided, the forms of government were very similar.
Section 1: American Struggle to Preserve Liberty
Attempts at Liberty
Course of the War:
Lord Cornwallis surrenders to America and France bringing war to an end.
Treaty of Paris:
Signed in 1783 recognizing America as independent.
America Lacked strong national government:
Articles of Confederation were too weak.
Attitude Toward War:
As fighting continued many colonists saw this as a struggle to preserve freedom and secure independence from Britain.
July 4, 1776:
Declaration of Independence clearly states attitude of colonists.
Expected parliament to repeal these laws.
Parliament refused to back down and continued sending British troops to enforce laws:
Colonists began storing up ammunition in case of war.
British learned of a stockpile and went to destroy it when they were encountered by militiamen at Lexington and Concord in 1775:
Two skirmishes led to the outbreak of war.
Until 1763 Colonist were free under British Law:
Britain passed new laws forcing colonies to make financial contributions to them:
Colonists believed Parliament overstepped its authority and violated colonial charters.
Charters stated that all powers of taxation rested with colonial assemblies and not houses of Parliament.
“No Taxation without Representation”
Sailed to America in search of religious freedom.
Founded Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts.
Drafted Mayflower Compact:
Temporary agreement establishing civil authority for the colony.
Seeking religious freedom to build state based on biblical principles.
The End of the National Convention
1795: New constitution dismantles the Convention, institutes the Directory
Two-chamber legislature, 5 man executive branch (the Directors)
Inherited the problems of the Convention
Bankruptcy, internal unrest, threat of invasion, gov’t corruption
Phases of the Revolution
Period of suppression called “The Reign of Terror”
Many hasty trials, mistaken identities, innocent executed
20,000 to 40,000 executed within 326 days
Many victims were peasants
Committee mobilized an enormous army
Used levee en masse to garner national support
Unrest at home, critical situation on the front
National Convention creates the Committee of Public Safety
Twelve man committee to take over every day gov’t affairs, especially the war
Gave power to the Revolutionary Tribunal to suppress opposition
Revolution takes a destructive and bloody turn
Rebellion and violence consequently causes national suffering
Phases of the Revolution
September 22, 1792: National Convention abolished monarchy and proclaimed 1792 to be the Year of the French Republic.
New Government took action and had Louis XVI executed on January 21, 1793.
Danton becomes virtual dictator of France
April 1792: Each political faction had a different reason for wanting war.
Austria and Prussia joined forces and invaded France:
July 1792 Duke of Brunswick issued the Brunswick Manifesto.
One group wanted to keep the changes the occurred in France, another group wanted to continue making changes.
Jacobins: Advocated most radical changes:
Often stirred up mobs to achieve radical goals.
Included leaders such as Jean-Paul Marat, George-Jacques Danton, and Maximillian de Robespierre.
Problem that started Revolution had not been solved any only been made worse:
People refused to pay taxes.
Assembly came up with idea to confiscate Roman Catholic Church land and assignants to pay off government debts.
Declaration of the Rights of Man:
August 27, 1789: National Constituent Assembly listed what is considered to be the natural rights of all people and rights they possess as citizens.
Louis refused to give consent to this legislation until uprising occurred.
Phases of the
Storming of the Bastille
Grievances of the Third Estate were similar from province to province:
Written Constitution, Equal Taxation, Equal Justice, Destruction of Feudalism.
Grievances of First and Second Estate were much different from those of the Third Estate.
Unbalanced Tax System:
Rule under Louis XIV:
Nobles thought he deprived their ancestors of positions of authority.
Middle Class wanted political power equal to their economic wealth.
Lower classes thought they were unfairly burdened with numerous feudal obligations.
French Destruction of the Old Regime
Citizen army surprisingly successful over European coalition
Army’s success no longer needs the Reign of Terror
Robespierre continues the bloodshed, arrests Danton as a traitor and executes him
Convention arrests Robespierre and his followers, executes them, effectively ends the Reign of Terror
September 1791: Assembly issued a constitution that:
Phases of the Revolution
Civil Constitution of the Clergy: July 1790:
Placed the church under state control, provided for election of clergy by the people, and required clergy to take an oath of loyalty to the state.
Outbreak of the
National Assembly June 20, 1789:
Locked out of assembly room, so they met in the royal indoor tennis court:
“Tennis Court Oath” was signed saying they would not disband until a constitution was written.
Louis XVI kept the lower class from gaining a 578 to 291 or 578 to 270 majority.
The spending of Louis XV and Louis XVI sent France into greater debt.
France did know how much money it needed to pay bills due to the lack of a budget.
1787: Private Banks refused to give any more money to French Government.
This financial crisis led to the outbreak of the revolution.
Reasons for Discontent
June 8, 1815:
Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Waterloo in what is now Belgium.
Defeated by Duke of Wellington.
Napoleon was banished to St. Helena where he lived out his days and died on May 5, 1821.
Napoleon and his army were defeated at Leipzig, Germany in what is known as Battle of Nations.
European Coalition allowed Napoleon to go to the island of Elba where he would spend the rest of his life.
Napoleon escaped and raised another army in Paris.
Grand Army traveled back through Russian winter:
Russians picked off soldiers one by one and burned bridges.
Napoleon abandoned army and fled to France before the people of Paris heard the news.
Only 100,000 soldiers in the Grand Army returned to Paris.
Europeans began seeking freedom from French.
Conflict in Iberian Peninsula:
Portugal violated blockade against British trade and Spain revolted against Napoleon’s brother.
1805: Launched all out attack against British allies:
Third Coalition against France included Austria, Russia, and Sweden.
Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia at Austerlitz.
1806: Napoleon dissolved Holy Roman Empire and set up Confederation of Rhine.
1808: Napoleon had control of mainland Europe:
Britain still controlled the seas:
Napoleon devised a plan of attack called the Continental System where he attempted to close Europe’s ports to British ships and cause a collapse of their economy.
Roman Catholic Church:
Knew popularity would not increase by returning privileges to the Church.
1801 made agreement with pope to return certain lands, allow seminaries to operate, and allow open services.
Agreement looked good, but Napoleon undermined it with laws that were hostile toward church.
Napoleon’s Return to France:
Crowds welcomed him as a hero:
He and his supporters staged a coup d etat:
By end of 1799 a new government called Consulate was formed under another constitution:
Established three man Consulate, however power was concentrated on First Consul, Napoleon.
Overthrow of the Directory
Lord Nelson destroyed French fleet and the British blockaded Napoleon and his men.
Napoleon heard of European coalition between Britain, Russia, Austria, and Ottoman Turks against France:
He left his men in Egypt and went back to France.
1797 he made peace with Austria and returned to Paris a hero.
1797: Jealous Directors ordered him to attack England, he attacked Egypt instead:
Attack on Egypt was to cut off British trade with the Near East.
Russians retreated against Napoleon and burned everything of value in their path. (Scorched earth policy.)
September 1812: Burned Moscow and stayed for three months until winter, then Napoleon retreated.
Wanted to become master of all Europe:
1805 Naval Battle: British defeated French off the Cape of Trafalgar.
Creation of Napoleon’s Empire
Privileged class made up of nobles:
Nobles owned vast estates and had others work the estate while they drew the income/wealth from it.
Consisted of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
Exempt from most taxes
Made up of 98% of France’s population.
Subdivided into three groups:
Middle Class, City Laborers, and Rural Laborers.
Rural Laborers/Peasants had required duties. See pg. 354.
Louis XV & Louis XVI:
Lacked character to rule France in the absolute Fashion of Louis XIV:
Showed more interest in the pleasures of life.
Privileged classes were exempt from most taxes.
Peasants bore greatest tax burden.
Most Common Taxes:
Taille, Capitation, and Vingtieme.
Failure to share the tax burden equally contributed to the national debt.
Verge of Bankruptcy:
Calling of the Estates General:
1789: Sent decree instructing people to choose deputies for a meeting at Versailles.
Instructed people to give deputies lists of grievances (cahiers).
Convening of the Estates-General
May 1789 meetings:
Louis XVI said each estate only was allowed one vote on each grievance.
Forming of the National Assembly:
Name taken by Third Estate on June 17, 1789
They claimed they were sent by the people to speak for the people.
Asserted principle of popular sovereignty and denounced unfair social order of France.
June 23, 1789:
Louis refused to allow the three estates to meet together unless is was regarding a raise in taxes:
He then dismissed the deputies, but the Third Estate refused to leave.
June 27, 1789:
Louis XVI ordered First and Second Estates to join the National Assembly:
Committee worked on a constitution.
He did this to close down the assembly.
Louis sent troops to Versailles and Paris for protection.
July 12, 1789:
Paris was the scene of rioting by angry mobs.
July 14, 1789:
Mob stormed and captured the Bastille after hearing of stored arms there.
Storming of the Bastille symbolized the downfall of the Old Regime.
Destruction of the Old Regime
Overthrow of the Monarchy
established a Legislative Assembly.
created fairer justice system, and
called for equal taxation,
limited the king’s powers,
Problems of Legislative Assembly
War with Austria and Prussia
Execution of the King
The Reign of Terror
The Committee of Public Safety
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
Born on August 15, 1769 in Corsica
Very successful military leader in France
Rises through the ranks, eventually gains ultimate power
1796-1815 often called “the Napoleonic Era.”
1795: the Directors of France chose Napoleon to lead French forces against Austrians:
He fought by “new rules” and won.
Attack on Egypt
Signed peace treaties with Austria and Britain, Initiated domestic reforms, began public works programs, founded the Bank of France, and set up more equitable tax system, and established public education system.
Codification of French Laws.
1802: People agreed to make Napoleon First Consul for life.
1804: Senate proclaimed Napoleon as emperor of France.
Swept through Europe and oppressed other European nations:
Napoleon replaced leaders of nations with his relatives.
Showed little concern toward other countries.
1810: Russia broke with Continental System when Czar Alexander I refused to suppress British trade:
Napoleon assembled the “Grand Army” of 600,000 men and invaded Russia in 1812.
Defeat and Exile
A Little Background...
Voltaire - called for
to solve social problems
At least 24 million
Meet the Monarchs
Married at the ages of 16 and 15
Louis inherits the throne four years later