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American History Chapter 16 -2 Women and Public Life
Transcript of American History Chapter 16 -2 Women and Public Life
Women and Public Life Women during the Progressive Era actively campaigned for reforms in education, children’s welfare, temperance, and suffrage. Opportunities for Women By the late 1800s, more educational opportunities arose as colleges, such as Oberlin College in Ohio, started enrolling women. By 1870 about 20 percent of all college students were women, and by 1900 that number increased by a third. Higher Education A few African American women, such as Alberta Virginia Scott and Otelia Cromwell, also attended colleges, but this was more rare. Most of the women who attended college at this time were from the upper or middle classes and wanted to use their skills after graduation. However, many employment opportunities were still denied to women, as organizations such as the American Medical Association didn’t admit women until many years later. Denied access to their professions, many women poured their knowledge and skills into the reform movement, gaining valuable political experience as they fought for change. By the late 1800s, job opportunities for educated middle class women grew, and these opportunities in public life changed how women saw the world and the role they wanted in their communities. Women worked as teachers and nurses in the traditional “caring professions,” but they also entered the business world as bookkeepers, typists, secretaries, and shop clerks. Newspapers and magazines began to hire more women as journalists and artists, trying to cater to the new consumer group formed by educated women. Chapter 16 Section 2: Women and Public Life Working-class and uneducated women took industry jobs that paid less than men, as employers assumed women were being supported by their fathers.
Reform also taught women that they had the power to improve life for themselves, their families, and their communities. Women Become the Backbone of the
Progressive Era Lillian Wald, founder of the Henry Street Settlement in New York City, believed the federal government had a responsibility to tend to the well-being of children.
She campaigned tirelessly for the creation of a federal agency to meet that goal.
She was successful when the Federal Children’s Bureau opened in 1912. Prohibition Progressive women also fought in the Prohibition movement, which called for a ban on making, selling, and distributing alcoholic beverages. Reformers thought alcohol was responsible for crime, poverty, and violence.
headed by Frances
Willard, which was a powerful force for both temperance and women’s rights. Two major national organizations led the crusade against alcohol: This is a famous lithpgraph from 1921 by George Bellows depicting Billy Sunday in the pulpit. Evangelists like Billy Sunday and Carry Nation preached against alcohol, and Nation smashed up saloons with a hatchet while holding a Bible. It is said Nation would greet
bartenders by saying, "Good
morning, destroyer of men's
souls!" Congress eventually proposed the Eighteenth Amendment in 1917, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol.
It was ratified in 1919. ...but was so unpopular that it was repealed in 1933. 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre African American women fought for many reforms, but with the added burden of discrimination, as many weren’t even welcome in certain reform groups. African American women formed their own reform group, the National Association of Colored Women (NACW), in 1896. By 1914 the organization had more than 100,000 members campaigning against poverty, segregation, lynching, the Jim Crow laws, and eventually for temperance and women’s suffrage Antilynching activist Ida B. Wells-Barnett Margaret Murray Washington
of the Tuskegee Institute. Harriet Tubman (1819-1913), famous Underground Railroad Conductor. Some of the most prominent African American women of the time joined, including African American Women Women’s Suffrage Movement Many women who had been abolitionists during the Civil War were angered that the Fifteenth Amendment granted voting rights to African American men but not to women. Susan B. Anthony Women organized into two major suffragist groups:
National Woman Suffrage Association, founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
Campaigned for a constitutional amendment letting women vote
Dealt with other women’s issues like labor reform and supported Victoria Woodhull, the first woman presidential candidate
American Woman Suffrage Association, with Henry Ward Beecher as President
Focused solely on winning the vote state-by-state and aligned itself with the Republican Party NWSA AWSA Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Henry Ward Beecher and his sister, Harriet Beecher Stowe. What famous book did she write? Women began to see success in the West, as in 1869 the Wyoming Territory granted women the vote, followed by the Utah Territory a year later and five more western states not long after. On December 10, 1869
Wyoming Gov. John A. Campbell had signed a suffrage act. Utah followed a year later. 12 states gave women the right to vote before it was nationwide. Susan B. Anthony She wrote pamphlets and made speeches. Susan B. Anthony testified to every Congress between 1869 and 1906 on behalf of suffrage. And in 1872, she and three sisters broke the law... Two weeks later they were arrested for knowingly, wrongfully, and unlawfully voting for a representative to Congress. As a form of protest, they registered to vote and actually voted on Election Day in Rodchester, NY. At the trial, the judge would not allow Anthony to speak on her own behalf, found her guilty ,and fined her $100. Anthony refused to pay in hopes that she could be arrested and appeal her trial to higher courts. But the judge didn't want to give her a chance to make more public her cause, so he did not persue charges. In 1875 the Supreme Court ruled that being citizens did not give women that right to vote. The Court said states should decide themselves if they would allow women to vote. Interfer with home duties Anti-Suffrage Arguements Women aren't smart enough to understand politics.
Marriage is sacred, and equal rights would destroy marriage.
Women don't really want to vote. The liquor industry worried that women would vote for Prohibition.
Other businesses worried reform movements lead by women would regulate industry and drive up costs. In 1890 these two groups joined to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) under Elizabeth Caty Stanton. Susan B. Anthony was president from 1892-1900. Susan B. Anthony's final public statement was "Failure is impossible" before she died in 1906. Women win the right to vote in 1920. Of the women who signed the Seneca Falls Declaration in 1848, only one, 92 year old Charlotte Woodward, was alive when women get the right to vote.