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What God Hath Wrought: Building a New Nation, 1800 - 1845

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Amber Fogle-Sergent

on 7 November 2017

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Transcript of What God Hath Wrought: Building a New Nation, 1800 - 1845

Toolbox of
Essential Questions

Industrial Revolution
Separate elements
Jacksonian Democracy
War of 1812

Headed by Henry Knox
Headed by Thomas Jefferson

Dept of State
Dept of War
George Washington
Headed by Alexander Hamilton

Treasury Department
Marbury v. Madison
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Build a sense of American nationalism
Oh no...
Most debt held by northerners
Sharing debt didn’t seem fair to the South
Federalist & first Secretary of the Treasury in Washington’s cabinet
Insisted that war debt was a national responsibility to be paid by all states, since all were benefit from independence

Hamilton’s 1791 excise tax on whiskey angered frontier & backcountry farmers because it taxed their most profitable commodity.
The primary cash crop was grain/fruit, from which liquor was made.
Summer of 1794: revolts break out in western PA
Washington calls on the army to suppress the rebellion
Set an example of federal law, authority, and follow-through
The Jay Treaty is met with outrage at home. Why?
Federalists -- Team Britain (Resolve lingering issues)
Jefferson Republicans -- Team France (Commitment during Rev. War) Washington begrudgingly accepts the treaty
Jay sent to negotiate repayment for stolen crops and slaves at the end of the war.
Huge shift -- Neutrality Law of 1793 under GW
Settle a commercial treaty legalizing U.S. commerce in the West Indies
Established intentions of friendship between the US and Spain.

Defined America’s western boundaries
Guarantees an American right to the Mississippi River
John Jay sent to negotiate with Britain.
British & France were engaged in war, while France dealing with civil unrest and revolution within its borders. U.S. ships caught in naval crossfire. U.S. citizens forced to vacate forts on northern frontier. (7 British forts violate Treaty of Paris)
Represents an ideological war between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists (Republicans)

The rhetoric became so heated that things resulted in several duels.
The Revolutionary War generation of leaders were not splintering into two sides.
Federalists fear immigrants who were likely to be supportive of French (and Dem-Rep.), who were attracted to Jefferson's support of equal opportunity & attacks on elites.

Jefferson and Madison lead the Republicans in their outspoken anger against the Acts
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Declared the Alien and Sedition Acts as “alarming infractions” on constitutional rights

They were successful, but in reality they were the opening guns of the Republican propaganda for the 1800 Presidential campaign
Westward Migration
War of 1812
Jacksonian Democracy
Industrial Revolution
Big Ideas
How did competing views of government promote political parties in 1790s and 1800s?
How did global events influence political divisions in 1800s?
According Alien & Sedition Acts, how do balance the need for security with rights of individuals?
What were the achievements and failures of Jefferson's presidency?
What was the significance of Marbury v. Madison?
Creating a Republican Culture
Big Ideas
Big Ideas
Big Ideas
Big Ideas
Big Ideas
Big Ideas
How did competing views of government promote political parties in 1790s and 1800s?
How did global events influence political divisions in 1800s?
According Alien & Sedition Acts, how do balance the need for security with rights of individuals?
Creating a Republican Culture
Big Ideas
How did competing views of government promote political parties in 1790s and 1800s?
What were the achievements and failures of Jefferson's presidency?
What was the significance of Marbury v. Madison?
Creating a Republican Culture
Guiding Questions
What was GW's beliefs about political parties? What warning did foreign nations did GW give in his farewell address? Did his successors listen?
Who were the competing political parties and their similarities and differences?
Were Washington's concerns valid for the future of the nation?
Guiding Questions
What was early America like in terms of population and diversity?
What were the achievements and failures of Washington's presidency?
Who was Alexander Hamilton? Why is his background significant for understanding his beliefs?
Why was Whiskey Rebellion so significant for understanding Washington's presidency?
Guiding Questions
Who was John Adams?
What were the achievements and challenges of Adams's presidency?
What happened with XYZ Affair?
What were the Alien & Sedition Acts?
How did Jefferson & Madison challenge the Acts?
Is there a conflict betwee freedom & security?
Guiding Questions
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
What were the achievements and challenges of Jefferson's presidency?
Did Jefferson follow his theories of Alien & Sedition Acts?
What were Jefferson's concerns of the National Bank?
Who was Aaron Burr & why is he significant to the story?
Did the Louisiana Purchase out of sync with Jefferson's Republican philosophy?
It begins with farewell...
Jay's Treaty
"No man is without his personal enemies....it would have been a vain expectation that the treaty would be generally contemplated with candor and moderation...it was certain on the contrary....that it would have to fight its way through unreasonable opposition....(it has become) a decided engine of party to advance its own views at the hazard of the public peace and prosperity."
Alexander Hamilton, 1795
"Mr. Jay's Treaty has at length been made public. So general a burst of dissatisfaction never before appeared against any transition...(it is) a hostile face to France." Thomas Jefferson, 1795
"The most remarkable political occurence with us has been the treaty with England, of which no man in the U.S. has had the affrontry to affirm that it was not a very bad one except A.H....I have never know the public pulse beat so full and in such universal union on any subject since the declaration of Independence...we have yet to learn whether they (House of Representatives) will be induced to lend their hand to it, hard swallowing with their constitutents, but will be swallowed from the habits of order & obedience which so much distinguish our countrymen." Thomas Jefferson, 1795
Using these documents, how did Jay's Treaty play a role in creating political divisions among US leaders?
Believing that I possess a share of your personal friendship and confidence and yielding
to that which I feel towards you—persuaded also that our political creed is the same on
two essential points, 1st the necessity of Union to the respectability and happiness of this
Country and 2 the necessity of an efficient general government to maintain that Union—
I have concluded to unbosom myself to you on the present state of political parties and
…It was not ’till the last session that I became unequivocally convinced of the following
truth—“That Mr. Madison cooperating with Mr. Jefferson is at the head of a faction decidedly
hostile to me and my administration, and actuated by views in my judgment subversive of the
principles of good government and dangerous to the union, peace and happiness of the Country.”
First—As to the point of opposition to me and my administration.
Mr. Jefferson with very little reserve manifests his dislike of the funding system
generally; calling in question the expediency of funding a debt at all. ….….In various
conversations with foreigners as well as citizens, he has thrown censure on my principles
of government and on my measures of administration. He has predicted that the people
would not long tolerate my proceedings & that I should not long maintain my ground.
Some of those, whom he immediately and notoriously moves, have even whispered
suspicions of the rectitude of my motives and conduct. In the question concerning the
Bank he not only delivered an opinion in writing against its constitutionality &
expediency; but he did it in a stile and manner which I felt as partaking of asperity and ill
humour towards me….
…..With regard to Mr. Madison—the matter stands thus. I have not heard, but in the one instance to which I have alluded, of his having held language unfriendly to me in private conversation. But in his public conduct there has been a more uniform &
persevering opposition than I have been able to resolve into a sincere difference of opinion. I cannot persuade myself that Mr. Madison and I, whose politics had formerly so much the same point of departure, should now diverge so widely in our opinions of the measures which are proper to be pursued. The opinion I once entertained of the candour and simplicity and fairness of Mr. Madisons character has, I acknowledge, given way to a decided opinion that it is one of a peculiarly artificial and complicated kind…
Alexander Hamilton to Edward Carrington, May 26th, 1792
…When I embarked in the government, it was with a determination to intermeddle not at all with the legislature, and as little as possible with my co-departments. The first and only instance of variance from the former part of my resolution, I was duped into by the Secretary of the treasury, and made a tool for forwarding his schemes, not then sufficiently understood by me; and of all the errors of my political life, this has occasioned me the deepest regret….
…. If it has been supposed that I have ever intrigued among the members of the
legislature to defeat the plans of the Secretary of the Treasury, it is contrary to all truth.
As I never had the desire to influence the members, so neither had I any other means
than my friendships, which I valued too highly to risk by usurpations on their freedom
of judgment, and the conscientious pursuit of their own sense of duty. That I have
utterly, in my private conversations, disapproved of the system of the Secretary of the
treasury, I acknolege and avow: and this was not merely a speculative difference. His
system flowed from principles adverse to liberty, and was calculated to undermine and
demolish the republic, by creating an influence of his department over the members of
the legislature…..
Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, Sept. 9, 1792
What do these documents teach us about political culture in GW's presidency?
What do they teach us about personalities of Hamilton & Jefferson?
Thomas Jefferson, 1795
Freedom & Security:
Is there a conflict?
Which side do you agree with?
X,Y,Z Affair
When? 1798
Adams signed into law 3 pieces of legislation passed by Federalist majority.
Justified laws to protect US from revolutionary France.
Quasi-war on the seas
An undeclared naval war results from the affair
But Federalists also designed laws to attack supporters of their Jeffersonian Rep rivals, specifically pro-Jefferson newspapers and immigrants.
Why XYZ?
Lucien Hauteval (“Z”)
Pierre Bellamy (“Y”)
Jean-Conrad Hottinguer (“X”)
Alien-Sedition Acts:

Alien Acts: empowered the President to deport “dangerous” aliens at his discretion;
Sedition Acts: any conspiracy against legal measures of the gov’t was illegal

Alien, Naturalization & Sedition Acts
“Every consideration of the public welfare was swallowed up in a continual grasp for power, in an unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation and selfish avarice.”
Naturalization Acts
The latter increased the number of years for an immigrant to become a citizen from five to 14 years, reducing the political power of recent immigrants.
Cold War...
The Alien and Sedition Acts were seen by Republicans as measures against freedom of speech and assembly
10 convictions under the act: All were Republicans
George Washington
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Hamilton System
Whiskey Rebellion
Jay's Treaty
Pickney's Treaty
Quasi-War with French
XYZ Affair
Alien, Naturalization & Sedition Acts
KY & Virgina Resolutions
National Bank
Marbury v. Madison
Sally Hemmings

Essential Understandings
5 points plan
How much democracy should exist?
How much freedom should exist?
Is political parties a "good" thing?
How unsettled were we as a country in early America?
George Washington
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Hamilton System
Whiskey Rebellion
Jay's Treaty
Pickney's Treaty
Quasi-War with French
XYZ Affair
Alien, Naturalization & Sedition Acts
KY & Virgina Resolutions
Federalist or Republican?
Federalist or Republican?
A bank to print national currency and take care of war debt.
A source for expanding capital in a growing economy.
Hamilton argues bank is nessary therefore falls under Article I of Constitution
Washington said okay because stability.
National Bank is created.
80 percent financed by outside investors
Jefferson argues bank unconstitutional
Republicans say bank does not fall under Article I’s “Necessary & Proper” clause
Northern reps voted 33-1 for bank;
Southern reps voted 19-6 against it
This led to the question: Should there be a strict or broad interpretation of the Constitution?

Enhanced value of US dollar
Secured government’s credit
Attracted foreign capital
Prosperity began to flourish!
Never really understood backcountry and frontier citizens
Increase of federal power

Wolf By the Ears
34:39 - 40:12; 1:05:44-1:11:30;
Gabriel's Rebellion
15:55 - 23:36; 23-36 - 29:30
Napoleon's Yard Sale?
Note the historians' differing views. Which is more convincing?
Analyze the similarities and difference of the economic and social effects of the labor systems of the Industrial Revolution and slavery.
Evaluate how two groups of people (i.e. President Jackson) championed or resisted the expansion of government powers in the period of 1800 to 1848. (Consider historical consequences!)
Evaluate how two groups of people championed or resisted reforms in the power from 1800 to 1848. (Consider historical consequences!)
29:30 - 34:30; 41:00 - 46:00
Louisiana Purchase?
"A wise and frugal government...which shall not take from the mouth of labour the bread it has earmed" -- meant transfer of all domestic policies to the states. Does this fit?
Explore LA Territory and West to see what opportunities available for Americans.
Meant no more contest with BR nor FR on American soil.
.03 per acre!
War Hawks
Jefferson defeats Adams
Democratic-Republicans take power
1st peaceful transition of parties

1st President inaugurated in DC
Outlines his essential principles of a more limited government
“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

Lets the Alien & Sedition Acts expire
Cuts all internal taxes
Uses tariffs and sales of Western land to reduce the National Debt

Embargo of 1807
Judiciary Act of 1801:
Created several new judges & justices of peace
16 circuit courts with judges
Reduced Supreme Court from 6 to 5
William Marbury sued Madison (TJ) for failure to make good on appointment
Judge Marshall ruled -- court could not compel the President to deliver the commission.
HS: Judicial Review
Nicknamed “Old Hickory” for his toughness
Major General during the War of 1812
Wins major victories in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend & The Battle of New Orleans
Leads campaign against Seminole & Creek Indians

Son of President John Adams
Strong support in New England
Favors internal improvements: National Road, Erie Canal

Calls Adams victory a “corrupt bargain”
Seen as a “man of the people”
Supports removing property qualifications for voting
Distrusts DC bureaucrats
Fires hundreds and replaces with his supporters
Rewards his campaign supporters with jobs – The Spoils System

Passes the Indian Removal Act
“5 Civilized Tribes” forced west to reservations
The Trail of Tears was their route

Thinks bank is the tool of wealthy
Vetoes its charter in 1832
Places Federal money is state banks
Causes Panic of 1837
South Carolina does not like the Federal Tariff of 1832
South Carolina claims it can nullify the tariff
Jackson threatens to send military to collect the tariff

Creation of the modern Democratic Party
Protection of popular democracy
Expanded use of the presidential veto

In what year was the Indian Removal Act passed?
What Indian tribes were removed?
What current US state were they moved to?

Native American Relations
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Building the New Nation, 1800-1848
Second Great Awakening
What God Hath Wrought
"What a Buzzel is amongst People about Kentucke?"
Push Factor
Know Nothing Party
Cotton boomed in South.
Commercial agriculture emerged in West (corn, wheat, cattle)
First stages of Industrial Revolution in Northeast reshaped the region's economy (more cities, more factories)
Erie Canal contributed to NYC's status as nation's economic center. Interlocked major cities.
More rivers, more trains, more roads linked rural communities in a worldwide marketplace.
Transportation & Communications Revolution:
Inventions & Economy:
Promise of cheap land and good wages drew millions of immigrants to America.
Different ethnicity in 1840s than previous immigrants. (Germany & Irish & Chinese)
First unions, formed by artisans who feared a loss of status in face of mechanization and immigration, were local and based on individual crafts. (Legal obstacles & cultural differences)
Inventions including cotton gin, increased cotton production. (Impact on slavery)
Impact of John Deere's steel plow & Cyrus McCormick's mechanized reaper, farm land more efficiently.
Canals & other transportation improvements = reach markets quicker and cheaper than ever before.
Railroads expanded rapidly during 1850s.
Telegraphs diminished isolation of West and changed communication, connecting people like never before.
8 million dollars
Illegal...Guarded British secret
City built on water -- largest dam in world in 1813
All stages of production process from raw cotton to finished product to sales.
The Mill Girls
Barton Stone
Still there, sort of.
Baptists & Methodists
African American influence
Cane Ridge, Paris KY
What about it makes it second?
Why was it "great"?
Why did people require "awakening"?
New religions
Clergy's decreasing authority
Religious revivalism spawned reform -- moral obligation
William Miller
Henry Emmons, a Millerite, later wrote, “I waited all Tuesday [October 22] and dear Jesus did not come;– I waited all the forenoon of Wednesday, and was well in body as I ever was, but after 12 o’clock I began to feel faint, and before dark I needed someone to help me up to my chamber, as my natural strength was leaving me very fast, and I lay prostrate for 2 days without any pain– sick with disappointment.”
Oneida, NY
Charles Finney
Complex Marriage
New Harmony
Equality for all...but...3 years.
Nashoba Colony, TN
Racially-integrated community

With roots in religious revivalism and dramatic socioeconomic change, antebellum reform touched on the full spectrum of nineteenth-century Americans’ lives: personal reforms like diet and dress; institutional reforms for schools, prisons, and asylums; moral reforms to counteract prostitution, drunkenness, and poverty; cultural reforms like religious revivals and protest thought; and reforms that moved into the realm of politics like abolition and women’s rights. This is why Antebellum American is a complicated, contested, and yet crucial part of nineteenth-century history.
Became a metaphor of the Great Revival.
Help fuel growth of Baptists & Methodists
Founded in 1776 by Mother "Ann" Lee, an English immigrant
Regarded men & women as equals
Adopted communal ownership of property
Dress was simple & uniform
Believed religious fervor should be expressed through heart, head, and mind
Believed sexual intercourse as basic cause of human sin
Burnt-Over District -- Upstate New York
Role of the Press -- 48 periodicals
Believed Christ would return in 1843 and 1844
The Great Disappoinment
Originated in 1820s
Joseph Smith, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Ohio, then Missouri -- hated for views of anti-slavery
Illinois -- Smith assassinated
Utah -- Political & Influential
One of most successful & notorious uptopian communities
Shared everything...
Complex Marriage
One of less successful
Robert Owen, deeply troubled by consequences of industrial revolution
Get rid of "God, marriage & property"
Children raised outside their natural parents' homes
Establish common ownership of property & abolish religion
Improved and expanded school system
Francis Wright, a fervent Scottish abolitionist
The Great Red Harlot
Established a racially integrated cooperative community in which slaves received education and earned money to purchase their freedom
Prison & Asylum
Factory & Workplace
Women's Rights
A fundamental belief ~ the individual could assume responsibility for perfecing their own life.
"We will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak our own minds..."
Individual Freedom & Humane Relationships
Brooks Farm
Seneca Falls, 1848
Republican Motherhood
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