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World War II

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Kate Eckhardt

on 8 November 2018

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Transcript of World War II

The US Enters the War [DEC 1941]
the American government was very pro-British, although declared neutral
US cut off vital supplies of oil and other materials to Japan

World War II
1939-1945
The German Conquest of Europe [1939-1940]
The Tide Turns [1942-1943]
Asian Front (1942)
Japan swiftly captured Guam, Wake Island, and Philippine Islands; they attacked Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma, & Dutch East Indies
Battle of Midway Islands -
US defeated Japan in fierce air and naval battle; halted Japan's advance on Hawaii
European Front (1942)
Germans were making progress in USSR, North Africa, and with submarine warfare
the Soviet Union demanded that the Allies open up a "second front" on European mainland
The First German Invasion of Russia
[JUN 1941-DEC 1941]

Overview of the fight for the Pacific Islands
The Atomic Bomb
The Battle of the Bulge
The Capture of Berlin
Allied Landings in Africa, Sicily, and Italy
Battle of Stalingrad
Allied Bombing
The Costs of the War
The End of the Battle
Invasion of Poland [Sept. 1, 1939]
Hitler captured Warsaw from the West, Stalin took Poland from the East
France & GB declared war
Tactics of "Blitzkrieg" or lightning warfare
Airplanes, tanks, infantry spreading terror and confusion
The Phony War
France & Britain wait eight months for Germany's attack
The Battle of Britain [JUL - OCT 1940]
Operation Barbarossa
- code name for invasion of Russia;
aimed at destroying Russia before winter set in
Delayed start hurt Hitler's chances
Hitler had lost six crucial weeks
Hitler Launches Invasion [June 1941]
Soviets were taken completely by surprise
Germany could not deliver the final blow
Winter devastated the German army
Nov. 1941 - the Soviet counterattack turns the war into a war of attrition (resources)
"a date which will live in infamy"
July 1942: Germans resumed the Soviet offensive on all fronts
the bloodiest battle in history
estimated 1.7-2 million casualties
Hitler was determined to take Stalingrad (strategic location) and Stalin was equally determined to hold it (it was named after him)
Feb. 1943: Hitler eventually defeated at Stalingrad
Major turning point in the war;
Russians pushed back westward from this point forward
1943:
massive bombardments of Germany day and night
Americans -
"precision bombing"
of military and industrial targets vital to the enemy war effort
British -
"area bombing"
aimed at destroying the morale of the German people
at times controversial - bombing of Dresden

Oct. 1942 -
Battle of El Alamein
- German advance in Egypt stopped
Nov. 1942 - Allied force landed in French North Africa and encircled and defeated German armies
Summer 1943 - Allies took Sicily and southern Italy
Mussolini driven from power, but the Germans occupied northern Italy
new Italian government (in the south) took side of Allies
the need to defend Italy diverted the Germans' energy and resources and left them vulnerable on other fronts
July 17, 1942-Feb. 2, 1943
D-Day Invasion
June 6, 1944
156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region
this opened the "western front" of the European war
the Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe.
paratroopers landing
day two - Peter Thomas
failure of the d-day tanks
hedgerows
first landing -
Native American
montage of images /videos of landing
200,000 German soldiers & 2 million German civilians remained in Berlin
Hitler had commanded no surrender, so the fighting was ruthless to the end
Soviets reached Berlin first in May 1945; Soviets occupied Berlin by agreement with their Western Allies
April 30, 1945: Hitler & friends take their own lives in underground bunker
May 2, 1945: Berlin's remaining inhabitants surrender
May 8, 1945: V-E Day; Victory in Europe day
The Third Reich had lasted 12 years [unlike Hitler's prediction of 1000]
Sept. 1944
-
Allies liberated France
Dec 1944 - Germans launched a counterattack against Allies in Belgium
costliest battle for the US (over 100,000 troops)
Jan 1945 - Allies recovered momentum and pushed eastward

The Defeat of Nazi Germany [1944-1945]
war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945
the longer the war lasted, the more American superiority in industrial production and population counted
Allied forces slowly gained naval and air supremacy in the Pacific, and moved methodically from island to island, conquering them and often sustaining significant casualties. The Japanese, however, successfully defended their positions on the Chinese mainland until 1945.
1941:
DEC - Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
1942:
APRIL - Bataan Death March
JUNE - Battle of Midway
1943
:
American forces (still small in number) began a campaign of "island hopping"; pushing back against Japanese island conquests
goals were to capture major bases and strategic sites along the enemy supply line
1944:
American forces began massive air attacks on Japan
1945:
FEB - US capture of Iwo Jima
APR - JUNE - US capture of Okinawa
August 6, 1945 - US Air Force dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
Tens of thousands of people died in the initial explosion, and many more died later from radiation exposure.
Three days later, the US dropped a bomb on the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
After Japan agreed to surrender on August 14, 1945, American forces began to occupy Japan.
Japan formally surrendered to the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union on September 2, 1945.
Fall of the Japanese Empire
The Peace Conferences
Hitler's Spring Offensive
"Their Finest Hour"
British Advantages
Fall of France
April - June 1940: Nazi forces overran Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France
the world was shocked at the speed of his capture
Winston Churchill
inspired strength and resilience among the British people
Massive air-bombing
of Britain to crush spirits and weaken the British wartime economy
German Luftwaffe vs. British Royal Air Force
Great Blitz against London
- attacked civilian and historical areas
Use of radar system
Broke the code of the Enigma machine
the RAF destroyed more than twice as many enemy planes as were lost by the RAF
Luftwaffe planes didn't have much long-range capability; most were focused on close support for ground troops
Atlantic Charter (1941)
Roosevelt and Churchill outlined the purposes of the war
they sought no territorial gain
looked forward to a peaceful world in which all nations chose their own governments
Tehran Conference (1943)
Big Three

scheduled the D-day invasion
agreed to work together in peace
Yalta Conference (1945)
created United Nations
UN Security Council - US, France, USSR, Great Britain, and China
Potsdam Conference (1945)
Germany is under four zones of military occupation
Large Effects of the War
Millions of people were killed, and large areas of Europe and Asia were damaged or destroyed
The Allies occupied Japan and parts of Europe.
The United Nations was created to help prevent future wars.
Conflict began between the Soviet Union and the other Allies over the fate of Eastern Europe.
The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the world's two major powers.
Causes of the War
Economic hardship and political unrest following World War I.
Aggressive leaders in Germany, Italy, and Japan wanted to expand their nations.
Germany invaded Poland, and Japan attacked the United States.
The First Moves of the War
Nazis invaded France in spring of 1940 through Belgium
Paris was captured in two months
General Marshal Petain advised abandoning the fight to avoid destruction
Vichy government established
a 'collaborationist' government
Battle lasted from Aug - Oct 1940
unusually foggy weather
helped British
loss of German aircraft
Legacy: first serious setback for the Germans

"Never in human history have so many owed so much to so few." Winston Churchill

December 7, 1941: attack on Pearl Harbor
much of the American fleet and many airplanes were destroyed
2500 US men killed; 1000 wounded
Dec. 8, 1941: the US and GB declared war on Japan
Dec. 11, 1941: Germany & Italy declared war on the US
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Kamikaze Attacks
How it all started...
1936
: Hitler re-militarizes the Rhineland
1937
: the Axis powers form
March 1938
: German annexation of Austria
Sept 1938
: Munich Conference & Agreement (Hitler given permission to invade Sudetenland (German part of Czechoslovakia)
Oct 1938:
German troops enter Sudetenland
March 1939:
Hitler breaks Munich Agreement; takes over all of Czechoslovakia
August 1939:
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact; Poland is split in half
Sept 1939:
Hitler invades Poland and European part of war begins


Sudetenland Crisis
Chamberlain's Speech
Anschluss
footage
Sound of Music
Remilitarizing
the Rhineland
policy of appeasement - giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace
France's surrender
and armistice
footage of Germany's
invasion of France
failure of the
maginot line
newsreel on the
Miracle at Dunkirk
Atonement scene at
Dunkirk
last day of
Dunkirk explained
Miracle at Dunkirk
first day of Dunkirk
May 28 - the little ships
May 30 - Churchill continues
Narnia Blitz
bio of Winston Churchill
Churchill speech preparing for the Battle of Britain
1950s documentary clip on Battle of Britain
clips of Battle of Britain with Churchill speech
newsreel on British RAF
WWII in color -
Battle of Britain
the Germans trapped hundreds of thousands Allied troops at the French coastal city of Dunkirk
Allied military and civilian ships saved over 300,000 soldiers and brought them to Great Britain
British casualties: 68,000
French casualties: 290,000
German casualties: 27,074 killed and 111,034 wounded.
the ultimatum
preparing to drop
the atomic bomb
Hiroshima
Nagasaki
tragic aftermath
testing
Siege of Leningrad
Sept 1941 - Jan 1944
900 day Nazi siege of city
1 million civilians killed
300,000 Soviet soldiers killed
by Nov. 1941, Nazis were only using 15% of their army to maintain hold on city
attempted slow Soviet evacuation over frozen lake
"Now we together, will all kill fascists"
And Luftwaffe Disadvantages
A German infantryman walks toward the body of a killed Soviet soldier and a burning BT-7 light tank in the southern Soviet Union in in 1941, during the early days of Operation Barbarossa.
Soviet rocket launchers fire as German forces attack the USSR on June 22, 1941
An Sd.Kfz-250 half-track in front of German tank units, as they prepare for an attack, on July 21, 1941, somewhere along the Russian warfront, during the German invasion of the Soviet Union
A German half-track driver inside an armored vehicle in Russia in August of 1941
German Stuka dive-bombers, in flight heading towards their target over coastal territory between Dniepr and Crimea, towards the Gate of the Crimea on November 6, 1941.
German soldiers cross a river, identified as the Don river, in a stormboat, sometime in 1941, during the German invasion of the Caucasus region in the Soviet Union
German soldiers move a horse-drawn vehicle over a corduroy road while crossing a wetland area, in October 1941, near Salla on Kola Peninsula, a Soviet-occupied region in northeast Finland
With a burning bridge across the Dnieper river in the background, a German sentry keeps watch in the recently-captured city of Kiev, in 1941.
Machine gunners of the far eastern Red Army in the USSR, during the German invasion of 1941
A German bomber, with its starboard engine on fire, goes down over an unknown location, during World War II, in November, 1941
Nazi troops lie concealed in the undergrowth during the fighting prior to the capture of Kiev, Ukraine, in 1941
Evidence of Soviet resistance in the streets of Rostov, a scene in late 1941, encountered by the Germans as they entered the heavily besieged city
Russian soldiers, left, hands clasped to heads, marched back to the rear of the German lines on July 2, 1941, as a column of Nazi troops move up to the front at the start of hostilities between Germany and Russia
Russian men and women rescue their humble belongings from their burning homes, said to have been set on fire by the Russians, part of a scorched-earth policy, in a Leningrad suburb on October 21, 1941
Reindeer graze on an airfield in Finland on July 26, 1941. In the background a German war plane takes off
Heinrich Himmler (left, in glasses), head of the Gestapo and the Waffen-SS, inspects a prisoner-of-war camp in this from 1940-41 in Russia
Evidence of the fierce fighting on the Moscow sector of the front is provided in this photo showing what the Germans claim to be some of the 650,000 Russian prisoners which they captured at Bryansk and Vyasma. They are here seen waiting to be transported to a prisoner of war camp somewhere in Russia, on November 2, 1941
Adolf Hitler, center, studies a Russian war map with General Field Marshal Walter Von Brauchitsch, left, German commander in chief, and Chief of Staff Col. General Franz Halder, on August 7, 1941
German soldiers, supported by armored personnel carriers, move into a burning Russian village at an unknown location during the German invasion of the Soviet Union, on June 26, 1941
A huge Russian gun on tracks, likely a 203 mm howitzer M1931, is manned by its crew in a well-concealed position on the Russian front on September 15, 1941
Rapidly advancing German forces encountered serious guerrilla resistance behind their front lines. Here, four guerrillas with fixed bayonets and a small machine gun are seen in action, near a small village.
Red Army soldiers examine war trophies captured in battles with invading Germans, somewhere in Russia, on September 19, 1941.
A view of the destruction in Riga, the capital of Latvia, on October 3, 1941, after the wave of war had passed over it, the Russians had withdrawn and it was in Nazi hands
Five Soviet civilians on a platform, with nooses around their necks, about to be hanged by German soldiers, near the town of Velizh in the Smolensk region, in September of 1941
basic explanation of invasion
geography of beach
Berlin under seige
Hitler's rage at the end
Hitler awards Nazi youth
Surrender of Berlin
Hitler burial scene
Himmler's treason
The Battle for the Philippines & The Baatan Death March
The Battle of Midway
Key Battles on
the Asian Front
Battle of Iwo Jima
Jan 1942
- Japan captures the capital of the Philippines (Manila)
April 1942
- US & Filipino troops surrendered on Bataan Peninsula
Japanese army forced 75,000 US & Filipino troops to make 65 mile march to prison camp
thousands die due to the brutality of the march
Feb 1945
- Allies recapture Bataan Peninsula from Japan
June 1942
US Pacific fleet occupied Midway
Japan wanted to sink US aircraft carriers that had survived Pearl Harbor
however, US code breakers knew about attack and were prepared
US decisively defeat Japan
significant Japanese loss of trained mechanics and aircraft ground crews
the US was now on the offensive; continued island hopping until reached Japanese mainland
Battle of Okinawa
Feb 1945
April - June 1945
the US needed islands near Japan from which to launch a full scale invasion
after 1 month of fighting and 23,000 Japanese defenders, the US gained control of Iwo Jima
almost all of Japanese defenders were killed; 6000 US troops killed
Last major battle of WWII;
Okinawa's air bases were critical to a successful Japanese invasion
180,000 US troops vs. 130,000 Japanese troops
Japanese strategy: changed from beach fighting to moving inland to make invading army's task more difficult
ruthless hand to hand fighting
Japanese suicides common
many kamikaze attacks
12,000 US troops dead; 110,000 Japanese troops dead; 50,000-150,000 Japanese civilians dead
TABLE A: Estimates of Casualties

Hiroshima

Nagasaki
Pre-raid po.

255,000

195,000
Dead

66,000

39,000
Injured

69,000

25,000
Total Casualties

135,000

64,000

fake towns built for nuclear testing
atmospheric
nuclear testing
testing &
future health
problems
potential war with North Korea
evolution of
nuclear weapons
nuclear testing timelapse
nuclear button
Full transcript