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Transcript of Chinese-American Culture
Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Chinese-American Adoption Ni Hao!
Hello! Madeline De Jonge FACTORS
HISTORY Each individual family
adopts for various personal
reasons, however, there
are social and economic
factors that play a role
in the increase of
adoptions. - the "one child" policy
- cultural devaluation of
- poverty, disease, etc. - infertility
- lower number of children available for domestic adoption
- social awareness;
"waiting children" - Asian adoption began with wars in Korea and Vietnam
* "Operation Baby Lift"
- China's Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976 became "push" factor
* Chinese-American adoption became more prevalent
- Adoption process became streamlined PROCESS The adoption Process is lengthy and expensive,
but many American couples see it as the perfect way to add to their family. Future adoptive parents must go through a lot of specific steps in order to be matched with a child. China is a Hague Adoption Convention member, meaning their process meets Hague's guidelines for more ethical adoption.
- Parents must first find an agency and apply for adoption approval. There is a list of guidelines set by China that determines who is eligible to adopt and the US Department of Homeland Security also must approve of the application.
- Next the family must wait to be matched with a child. Some families take the special needs (SN) route, others want non-special needs children (NSN). The Chinese children's welfare office in Beijing matches each applicant's "dossier" with a child. This is called a referral. The wait for a non-special needs, female Chinese child is an upwards of 5 to 7 years. Special needs adoptions are expedited and may only take 6 months. Most healthy babies are adopted at 6 to 18 months of age. - Once a family receives a referral packet with information about their matched child, they have a few days to secure the adoption. Then the adoptive parents must file for travel approval.
- Parents typically travel with their agency in a large group. They tour together, separate to pick up the children from their respective provinces, and then meet back up to do the final paperwork
-The day a couple meets their new child at their orphanage/welfare center/foster home is called a "gotcha day" or "forever family day". CULTURAL IDENTITY VIDEOS FIRST WAVE Chinese laborers first came to the US during the California Gold Rush. The first wave of Chinese immigration started in 1820, but didn't pick up speed until 1848. By 1860 there were almost 35,000 Chinese immigrants in America. These immigrants were usually young, male physical laborers. The Chinese eventually moved away from mining toward railroad construction. Unable to speak English, the Chinese laborers were exploited and performed the most dangerous tasks of the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad. Chinese laborers were excluded from the photograph of the completion of the first Transcontinental Railroad promontory point in Utah in 1869. Although the Chinese-American population appears to be smaller in numbers and low in concentration across the US, this racial minority has had a stronger social and cultural impact on the United States than is typically acknowledged by the American public and media.
Furthermore, the Chinese-American population is diverse within itself considering the different family backgrounds and lifestyles of Chinese-American citizens. PART ONE PART TWO CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT As the supply of gold in California became more limited and the railroad jobs were given to white laborers, the Chinese were forced out of their positions and into Chinese cultural enclaves such as the Chinatown of San Francisco. Here, Chinese laborers set up shop as merchants, launderers, and restaurant owners. The whites living in the west saw the Chinese as competition in their economy and this pressured the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. This Act prevented slowed Chinese immigration and prevented the Chinese from gaining US citizenship. This caused the Chinese to be ostracized and prevented successful assimilation. The Act also endorsed racism against Asians. The act wasn't repealed until 1942 and Chinese immigration wasn't streamlined until the mid 1960s during the Chinese Cultural Revolution. CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACT - Laborers already in the US could not become full citizens. They were alienated and denied their first ammendment rights, especially the right to petition.
- Chinese people wanting to immigrate to the US had to have official paperwork from China stating that they were not a "laborer". This was rather impossible due to the Chinese and American cultural definitions of "laborer".
- The Chinese people already in America could not help their families back home immigrate. They were separated from their past.
- The Chinese were stereotyped and isolated.
- Major cultural enclaves formed in New York State and California.
- The act was in place until 1943. By that time many Chinese families relied on Canadian border negotiations, sympathetic judges, and bribes to gain citizenship.
- The US didn't streamline until the 1966 Chinese Cultural Revolution pushed many Chinese citizens into the US that didn't approve of the Communist rule in China.
- China still doesn't allow dual citizenship. SECOND WAVE - Second wave of Chinese-American immigration was sparked by China's Cultural Revolution. During the Revolution, Chairman Mao Zedong enforced the spread of communism and the destruction of any capitalism in China.
- Social and economic conditions in China caused many Chinese citizens to seek prosperity in the US.
* This reiterates the Chinese cultural value of honor, education, and success.
- The process for Chinese-American immigration was finally streamlined to accomodate this increase in immigration. SECOND WAVE continued This second wave of immigration also brought more Chinese people from Hong Kong and Taiwan into the US. These new immigrants had a more diverse, urban background and spoke many dialects of Chinese, not just mandarin. Unlike immigrants from the early 1900s who were from rural provinces, these second wave immigrants were often educated professionals. They also had greater expectations for social mobility and were exposed to more urban culture. These attributes contributed to quicker assimilation into American culture. Educated second wave immigrants didn't put up shop in China Towns, they spread across the US where they could find the best work. The undereducated immigrants, however, stuck in the urban enclaves. The 1980s saw an increase in student migration to the US. Chinese college students often settled in the US once they graduated. - Chinese medicine includes all of the medical therapies practiced traditionally by the Chinese.
- Chinese medicine is based on acupuncture and acu-points and includes needlework, cupping, moxibustion, tai chi, qi dong,
tui na, and herbal therapies.
- Acupoints are based on the meridians of the human body. Small needles (they are the width of 3 pieces of hair) are inserted into acupoints across the body to stimulate the electrical points (or "qi" the "life force"). The needles are thin, sterile, and do not draw blood.
- Chinese medicine has its own school of thought and concept of disease concerning treatments and anatomy. Practitioners of Chinese medicine believe in ying and yang, and use damp/dry, and hot/cold to define symptoms. Traditional Chinese Medicine seeks to provide balance to a patient's body because bad health is a sign of internal disharmony. When certain elements are in excess they must be corrected or released to rebalance the body.
- Chinese medicine and acupuncture dates back to the Shang Dynasty in the 14th-11th centuries BCE SPREAD TO THE US Due to its large population of Chinese immigrants, California was the first state to create a streamlined process for the licensing of professional acupuncturists. California created an Acupuncture Board in 1978. Now, only six state do not have legislation to regulate Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). TCM is considered a part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Recently, the CAM industry has pushed to be included in insurance coverage. Slowly, more and more insurance companies are covering integrative medicine because many people seek Eastern and complementary medicine over traditional Western treatments. Traditional Oriental Medicine
is the major health care system for over one quarter of the world's population. There are over 50
colleges in the USA. There are over 22,671 licensed
in the US. Acupuncture can successfully
treat over 43 conditions. 1 out of 10
has tried acupuncture. TCM
FACTS Chinese Americans
only make up
1.2% of the US
population. In 2010 half of Chinese
born people living in the US lived either in California or New York State. POPULATION
FACTS - In the US more and more hospitals are
creating wings for acupuncture and other CAM treatments.
- Acupuncture is used to treat asthma, allergies, migraines, cold/flu, fatigue, post-operation recovery, depression, anxiety, infertility, PMS, menopause, and countless other conditions.
- Even dogs, cats, and farm animals are given treatments by licensed veterinary acupuncturists.
- Acupuncture is used to reduce stress and prevent future health issues. USAGE - In China, acupuncture is mainstream and is
used alongside modern, Western-style
Anesthesia is rarely used in Chinese surgeries
because the Chinese opt to be sedated through
needlework to chemical medication.
- From life-threatening cancers to the
everyday cough and cold, the Chinese
turn to herbal remedies and manipulative
therapies before seeking Western medical
procedures and medications. 21.4% of San Francisco's
population is Chinese-American. - Adoptees are raised either "colorblind" or raised with "active acknowledgment" of their racial difference.
* "Colorblind" parents do not emphasize race. They act as though it is not a major issue. Children are often raised in a mostly white environment and fully integrate the adopted child into their family and community without talking about racial stereotypes or prejudices. "Colorblind" parents don't usually preserve their child's homeland heritage. Children often feel like a "banana" - yellow on the outside and white on the inside.
* "Active acknowledgment" parents recognize the importance of race and racism. They encourage discussion about race with their child. "Active acknowledgment" parents typically work to preserve their child's ethic heritage. Some children, however, may not want to practice cultural activity or keep up with the Chinese language. - Adoptees may go to Chinese culture camps, attend Chinese language immersion schools, socialize with their "forever family group" (families with kids adopted on the same tour or from the same orphanage), take traditional Chinese dance lessons, or celebrate traditional Chinese holidays such as the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival or Chinese New Year. Some adoptees even go on a heritage tour back to their provinces. Even well adjusted, non-special needs Chinese adoptees who were adopted as young babies struggle with cultural identity.
Adoptees may have issues associating themselves with the term Chinese-American because, being raised by white family, they are not fully "Chinese". CHINA TOWNS - ethnic neighborhoods/cultural enclaves
- designed to replicate small town China
- Chinese culture survives and thrives: language, food, art, architecture traditions, religion, museums, activity groups.
* familiar surroundings for new immigrants
* preserves heritage
* exposes people of other backgrounds to Chinese culture MAJOR AMERICAN CHINA TOWNS 1. San Francisco, California
(largest China Town outside of Asia)
2. New York City, New York
3. Boston, Massachusetts
4. Los Angeles, California
5. Honolulu, Hawaii NYC, NY San Fran, CA CHINESE AMERICAN FOOD Chinese Restaurants popped up in the 1800s when the Chinese were pushed out of mining. Restaurants are a large part of Chinese culture in Asia, so it was only a matter of time before they sprung up all over China Towns. To this day, Chinese immigrants see restaurant ownership as a great way to plant economic roots in their new surroundings. American cooking (sweet sauces, deep frying) has had an influence on Chinese food, creating a new style of cuisine which typically has more calories. Authentic Chinese food is a lot different than Americanized Chinese food (You can't find Sweet and Sour Chicken in China). Many Chinese Americans eat both Americanized and traditional Asian food. Fortune Cookies were created by Chinese immigrants in California in the late 19th century. FESTIVALS Chinese-Americans often celebrate traditional Chinese holidays.
Chinese holidays and festivals are lunar celebrations.
China Towns are fully decorated during the Mid-Autumn Moon
Festival and Chinese New Year. People dress in traditional silks
and fireworks light the sky. During the Mid-Autumn Festival, people eat moon cakes. The cakes have soft crusts with imprinted designs. Inside, the cakes are filled with sweet pastes from red beans or lotus seeds. The cakes are sold in China Towns in decorative tins. Chinese New Year Dragons on Parade in China Town, NYC During Chinese New Year, parents and elders give red
envelopes filled with money to their children. The gift
symbolizes good fortune for the coming year. RED The Chinese consider the color red to be a symbol
of good luck and good fortune. They also believe
that the color red protects from evil spirits.
In order to have good luck on their wedding days, Chinese women wear traditional red wedding dresses. Many Chinese-American women continue this tradition. Vera Wang's Red Wedding Dress Collection Famous Chinese-American News Reporter Lisa Ling wore a traditional red gown for her wedding. FAMILY Chinese-Americans have very strong family values.
The Chinese place a high value on the approval of elders, the importance of bringing honor to your family, and the value of a good education. This can often come off as intense to other Americans. Asian parents are stereotyped as being very strict on their children. Asian children are stereotyped as naturally smart and nerdy. Statistically Asian students test higher and take harder courses. Prestigious schools can often have very high percentages of Asian students. Many Asian parents stress that their children attend the best colleges possible and aim for the Ivies. This is not only rooted in Chinese's value of education, but the educational background of the parents. Many Chinese immigrants during the Cultural Revolution had to flee from their education, many have never received the high school or college diplomas they were working for. Immigrants who move the US seek a better life for themselves and their children; Chinese-Americans see success in academics and extracurriculars as a reflection of their family's progress. More than 52% of
Non-Religious. 51.8% of all Chinese Americans have attained at least a bachelor's degree, compared with 28.2% nationally and 49.9% for Asian Americans as a whole. Chinese-Americans make up
25% of the recipients
of PhD's in math/engineering. The Chinese-American average annual income is $65,273. The US national average is at $50,046. SOCIOECONOMIC
FACTS Xie Xie!