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Pre-History and Egypt
Transcript of Pre-History and Egypt
With no other information, what can you say about the society which created this? (We will start every class with a primary source, and it may be helpful to write your answer to the question as these may appear on the test)
Translation: The judge of truth, the god Thoth, declares his findings to the Great Ennead. Thoth says, “I have judged the heart of the deceased, and his soul stands as witness for him. His deeds are righteous in the great balance, and no sin has been found in him...” The assembly of gods of the Great Ennead reply to Thoth, “This utterance of yours is true….let there be given to him the offerings which are issued in the presence of Osiris as one greatly favored by the good god, and as one loved of the Lord and God over the Two Lands (the Pharaoh)”
What can we say about Egyptian society from this illustrated text?
Unification- Menes (Narmer) (3100 BC)
Venus of Dolní Věstonice
Features that usually exist in a "civilization"-
Many types of work (“division of labor”)
--Science of History--
What modern scientific techniques are used?
What is the argument of the article or what is the important conclusion reached?
How did science reveal what would not otherwise be able to be known?
What might we infer about the society which created these?
For this project, you will select an appropriate historical site, event, group, or practiced tradition which is inspired and influenced by an “ancient” (pre 1600) world culture
Ötzi the Iceman
Pharaoh Egyptian Religion
Status of Women
Which was prehistoric man more like and why?
Change of Time
What shapes Egyptian history?
Why is Egyptian history different than Mesopotamia?
Agriculture first developed in the Middle East and permanent agricultural settlements started to appear. Over long periods, permanent settlements led to more complex societies, with different occupations, social classes, government, trade, and organized religion.
Sumerians organized themselves into independent city-states, such as Ur, Uruk, and Lagash.
Sargon the Great of Akkad unifies most of Mesopotamia under a central authority
The Amorites, a Semitic group, conquered Sumer and Akkad adding the territory to their empire based in the city of Babylon.
Hammurabi compiled the first complete law code known to history, the Code of Hammurabi.
The Hittite Empire collapsed due to invasions by the Sea Peoples along the Mediterranean coast and the Phrygians in Anatolia around 1200 BCE.
Assyrians conquer all of Mesopotamia, parts of Anatolia, and the Levant, modern Syria, Lebanon, and Israel.
The Chaldeans briefly took control over the region and rebuilt the city of Babylon for their capital. Babylon flourished and became a center for world trade.
Under Cyrus the Great, the Persians began conquering their neighbors.
Xerxes led a failed attempt to conquer the Greek city-states.
Alexander the Great, defeated in battle the last Persian king and absorbed the Persian Empire into the Greek Empire.
Alexander the Great’s empire is divided up among his generals. Seleucus I Nicator founds a dynasty which initially controls much of Persia, Mesopotamia, and Anatolia.
Parthians rule Mesopotamia.
Shapur I the Sassanid king of Persia banished the Romans and began building an empire based on the earlier Achaemenid model.
Arab Muslim warriors overran the Sassanid Empire and added Mesopotamia to Dar al-Islam, the Islamic state based in Mecca.
Old Kingdom (2686 BC – 2181 BC)
- the first Egyptian pyramid is built- the Step Pyramid
- the Great Pyramids of Egypt were built at Giza
1st Intermediate Period (2181-2055 BC)
Middle Kingdom (2055 BC-1650 BC)
2nd Intermediate Period (Hyksos) (1650–1550 BC)
The New Kingdom (1550–1069 BC)
-Egyptians developed a permanent army
-Egyptian Empire expanded into Palestine and Syria
-Tombs of the Valley of Kings.
-Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun
332BC- Alexander the Great conquers Egypt.
-Alexandria becomes famous for the Great Library.
-Greek rule continues under the Ptolemy line of kings.
-The Rosetta Stone is carved
-Egypt becomes a province of the Roman Empire
-384 AD- Theodosius ordered the adherence to Christianity
-395 AD The Roman empire split into West and East and Egypt became part of the Byzantine Empire
-642 AD The Arabs captured Alexandria and Egypt became an important part of the Islamic Empire
3rd Intermediate Period (1069–670 BCE)- Nubian (Kush) rule
Late Period (Assyrians; Persians) (670–332 BCE)
- Permanent Agricultural Settlements
- Cities and trade
- Specialization of labor
- Rise of social classes, greater gender inequality, and government
Gift of the Nile
What is the Code of Hammurabi?