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Enlargement eu

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Mirjam Jamal

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Enlargement eu

The European Enlargement
Enlargement Timeline
2004: "Eastern Enlargement"
Largest one so far: most changes
10 new countries joined
1981 and 1986:
"The Mediterranean Enlargement"
2007 'Romania and Bulgaria join'
1957: The founding fathers
1973: "Northern Enlargement"
1995: "The Europe Free Trade Area Enlargement"
Austria, Finland and Sweden joined in the Fourth enlargement. Were already members of the EFTA
Turkey, Former Yugoslavia Republic, and Macedonia (since 2005), Iceland (since 2009),
Montenegro (since 2010), Serbia (since 2012)


The institutional framework
First:the European Parliament, the Council and the national parliaments take terms of the application.
Consent by the European Parliament
Parliament approves accession
Democratic stamp
However, no ability to decline membership

The Commission
It gives an opinion and sends a questionnaire to the candidate country
Checks the alignment of EU laws
the European Council
Has the power of 'accession' approval
They decide!
Unanimous approval to start negotiations
Case Study
'Turkey's accession'
Discussion question:

Case Study:
Accession of Iceland

The 'accession treaty' will be

all MS
and the candidate countries, generally by referendum.
The Enlargement Policy
Rules, Procedures and Enlargement policies
Capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the union
Four different types of agreements
Their adjustment for the creation of conditions for its integration
Directorate General for Enlargement:
Manages the process how countries join
the European Union, with help of the Commissioner for Enlargement
Assist candidate countries and potential candidates
meeting the Copenhagen criteria criteria
Define and implement EU's stabilization
association policies

Manages the EU's bilateral relations with candidate countries
potential candidates.
Manages the EU’s financial assistance
(Directorate General) Enlargement is
Managed by
Director General:Christian Danielsson

Preference for bilateralism in EU - candidate countries relations adapting to each country's meritocracy and conditionality.

This creates a multi-speed approach that leaves some countries behind (Two - gear Europe)
Enlargement 'fatigue' and 'Conditionality'
Enlargement 'fatigue'
Neo - functionalism
Focus: supranational institutions and political and economic elites as interest groups

- Expansion process: irreversible as a way of imposing conditions by the institutions.
- Interest groups coordinate transnationally to establish in new member states.
Liberal intergovernmentalism
Focus: Costs and benefits of socio-economic interdependence in determination of countries' support of enlargement.

- Stressing of intergovernmental policy
- States bargain in the process also according to their interests.
- Why do member states also accept costs?
Social constructivism
Focus: Why do member and candidate states accept expansion?

- Due to constitutive values and norms that are shared with the same identity.
- Due to the "special responsibility" of member states to reintegrate involuntarily excluded peoples.
- Implementation is due to the emulation of local elites of the institutional framework imposed, but seen as "key to success".
"Enlargement fatigue"
Little support to enlargement both in member and in candidate states.

Examples: 2011 Eurobarometer - only 42% of respondents was for enlargement
FYR Macedonia - 65% of support
Turkey - 41% of support
Iceland - 26% of support
Disappointing progress
- High adoption costs for politicians against their power and personal economic interest.

- Legacies of conflicts: highly confrontational political climate and ethnic tensions

- Standing politicized bilateral issues: Kosovo and Serbia, Cyprus and Turkey, FYR Macedonia and Greece; Iceland, UK and the Netherlands.
Institutional framework
Ratification of the Lisbon Treaty hasn't been as successful as expected.

Future institutional reforms could be included in the accession agreements
Economic crisis
- It slowed down the economic convergence of the members and the adaptation process of the candidates.

- It is eroding the EU's soft attraction power to potential candidates such as Albania, Kosovo, Georgia, Ukraine or Moldova
Mirjam Jamal & Habon Mohamed
Discussion question:
1.Do you agree with the fact that
Romania and Bulgaria
should be
denied access
to the European Labor market because of the acquisition of
‘benefit tourism’
? Explain view

Greece, Spain, Portugal joined
Denmark, Ireland and
United Kingdom joined
Case Study
Britain against free movement
'Romania and Bulgaria'
1 January 2014
Fear of 'benefit tourism'
Uk & Germany and more
Commission denied
Romania and Bulgaria: second class Europeans?
1st July 2013 Croatia joined
Second country from the former Yugoslavia country to join EU
Closing the chapters
Accession Treaty
Binding untill
Country becomes an 'acceding country'
Accession process 1 more time
Accession process

It simply means ,the steps that need to be taken for a country in order for it to join the EU.
The 4 types of Agreements
The Copenhagen Criteria
(AA) the Association Agreements
(EEA)European Economic Area Agreement
The Europe Agreement
(SAA)Stabilization and association agreements
Political criteria
Economic criteria
Article 49 (TEU)
of the European Union Treaty states
Administrative and institutional criteria
Definition of 'Accession'
Discussion about
Turkey's accession
2.Do you think that Turkey will ever join the EU? Name one

or s
(military) advantage and disadvantage of the Turkish membership for the EU?
History, culture and Religion


3.Can Europe
and also
? Explain if so and why not



4.What problem(s)
will Iceland
when it
the EU? And what are
the advantages
in terms of membership for Europe and Iceland?

Enlargement 'fatigue'
Conditionality as a foreign policy tool?
Widening and deepening
Phenomenon of 'fatigue'
Iceland & Turkey
The word already emphasizes the meaning. Accession (
). The Accession goes hand in hand with conditionality.

It is

the criteria
that a country
needs to meet
in order to integrate rapidly into the European Union.
Discussion question:
Iceland founding member of NATO
EU membership submission in 2009
Associate member of 'Schengen agreement'
Relies on fishing industry
September 2008, bank collapse
Has closed 33 chapters of 'aquis'
Barosso: 'Clock is ticking..'
Enlargement fatigue?

Its definition is simply the reason (s) of
of Union members towards (new countries) to join membership.

Combined with symptoms of
of countries who desire to join the EU.
any European State
respects the values
referred to
in Article 6
and is
to promoting them
may apply
to become a member of the Union.
The European Parliament
and national Parliaments shall be notified of this application.
The applicant State
shall address its application
to the Council
, which shall act unanimously
after consulting the Commission
and after receiving
the assent of the European Parliament
, which shall act by an absolute majority of its component members. The agreement of admission between the member states shall be
submitted for ratification
by all the contracting States in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements. The conditions of eligibility agreed upon
by the European Council
shall be taken into account.
Set of laws and engagements


the Member States

as part of the European Union. Candidate countries
must accept
'acquis communautaire'/ EU legislation

acceding to the European Union.
Widening vs Deepening
Treaty of Rome
states Europe should aim at a more 'closer union'(
deepening approach

Are we aiming at a more deep Europe? Or a more wider Europe? By including simply more MS (
widening approach
)such as Turkey.

But officially in 2007

What happened in those 2 years?

Membership is not final, until it is ratified by all MS

Romania and Bulgaria joined in 2005
Greece joining in 1981 was important
It was an
of the
, meaning Greece contributed to NATO operations and much more.

Turkish membership is taking its time
Frustration within Turkish society
Public support and government

Traditional views
Full transcript