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Transcript of Action Research
Iterative, involving a series of repeating cycles existing within and between the Project (Core) and Thesis (Reflective/Meta Learning) cycles. Organizations by... In Conclusion ...is a systematic and collaborative
approach to inquiry and investigation
used by practitioners
to solve everyday challenges within
their own organizations! Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) A social psychologist, is credited for "coining the phrase Action Research". From his work with groups, experiential learning and teaching democracy, Lewin came to believe that... are a few notable AR researchers who have inspired others to bring about organizational change in the industries of... facilitated by continuous 1st person- Personal inquiry; from the perspective of "SELF"
2nd person- inquiry amongst the AR team members; from the perspective of "US"
3rd person- inquiry from those who are outside of the AR team or project; from the perspective of "THEM" AR Teams Engage in Continuous Inquiry Action Research is Inquiry, Feedback, Reflection... AR Teams Thrive on Feedback Solicited from all AR team members and organizational stakeholders
Provide"accurate" impressions of information about issues or problems at hand
Can be used in “the adjustment of [organizational] processes” AR Teams are Reflexive
Considering ones thoughts, or those of others
Thinking about expressed beliefs and values
Investigating perceptions and realities
Retelling stories for clarification
Expressing feelings and new understandings By: Demetrix Rostick-Owens
University of Georgia
EADU 8610, Fall 2012 Photo courtesy of 123 ROYALTY FREE STOCK PHOTOS
http://www.123rf.com/photo_12652052_word-on-keyboard-made-in-3d.html Along with Lewin ; Argyris (2003), Torbert (2003) and Stringer (2007) Action Research:
A Dynamic Approach to Change Filling the gaps and contributing new knowledge to the theoretical literature surrounding organizational development and change L.I.A. As new knowledge and understanding emerges in the thesis cycle; team members may have to make modifications or adjustments to the content, process and premises of the core cycle. Leading to an opportunity for Learning in Action The AR process is The AR Project Cycle (Core) 1. Identify the issue to be resolved (Construction)
2. Plan the “first steps” of innovation (Planning Action)
3. Implement innovations (Taking Action)
4. Evaluate the outcomes of innovations (Evaluating Action) (Coghlan & Brannick, 2010, pp. 8-10) The Thesis or Meta Learning Cycle in AR The reflective thesis cycle in AR, focuses on gaining new insights, thoughts and perceptions from the emerging data of the core cycle. In the thesis cycle, meta learning is achieved by engaging in reflection upon the the core cycle's: 1. Assessment of the substance of the Core cycle (Content)
2. Evaluation of research strategies (Process)
3. Discovery of assumptions associated with research (Assumptions) (Coghlan & Brannick, 2010, pp. 12-13) The technical and structured part of the AR cycle... Following the completion of the evaluation cycle, determination is made to either continue with or to end the engagement. (Stringer, 2007, p. 19). Collaboration, & Premises of the AR Team or reexamination, probing and framing
the issue at varying levels, ... AR is Rigorous and Matters “… how to go about framing, structuring and approaching” research which allows “for a systematic way of thinking through and articulating what you plan to study and how you plan to study it” ...why a study matters to the designated audience
or community and how it connects the research questions, arguments, and data analysis to ultimatly,
informs research questions. & Explains Addresses Systematic in it's approach to inquiring and investigating
A practitioner based research method, to solve practical issues
Facilitated by continuous Collaboration, Inquiry, Feedback and Reflection
A means for advancing theory and knowledge in the field
Iterative, involving the core and thesis cycles
A process which encourages Learning in Action as the project proceeds.
Built on team work and strong trusting relationships
Rigorous as it addresses why a study matters to it's intended audience; and connects the research arguments and data analysis to the initial research questions. Action Research is a Dynamic Approach to Change because... (Stringer, 2007,19). "Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice," but instead should lead to "social action" (Lewin 1946, reprinted 1948, p. 202-3)
Business, Education and Politics. AR researchers and clients/organizational stakeholders enter into agreement to proceed with an AR project
Each member openly participates in all aspects of the research
Team relationships are built on commitment and trust
Change is identified, planned and implemented by those who are most affected by the issue
The researcher is not the "expert", but is a part of the team which welcomes information, dialogue and discussion generated by the team as a whole The AR Research Paradigm... is “fundamentally,…grounded in a
qualitative research paradigm
whose purpose is to gain a
greater clarity and
understanding of problems”… (Stringer, 2007, p. 19). AR Teams are Collaborative Central to Collaboration is Democratic Participation Premises of the AR Team Premises of the AR Team or, dialogue and commentary on practices ... (Yalom 1995, p. 489) Premises of the AR Team AR Teams engage in reflection to make meaning of experiences. Reflection can consist of... Practitioners by... The Field by... Securing practical and sustaining solutions to
organizational development and problem resolution Introducing new practices and techniques into the field of Social Sciences for current and future practitioners Because it Benefits... How AR works Once again,
Action Research focuses on creating change by first researching the issues of the organization, and then taking action to resolve them. Why AR works (Ravitch & Riggan, 2011, p. 7) Why AR works (Ravitch & Riggan, 2011, p. 3) References Coghlan, D. & Brannick, T. (2010). Doing action research in your own organization (3rd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, Ca: sage Publications, Inc.
Ravitch, S.M. & Riggan, M. (2011). Reason and rigor: How conceptual frameworks guide research.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Smith, M. K. (2001). Kurt Lewin, groups, experiential learning and action research. The encyclopedia of
informal education. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-lewin.htm
Stringer, E.T. (2007). Action research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Yalom, I. D. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (4th ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.