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Manual Handling

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Shaun Durkin

on 23 January 2018

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Transcript of Manual Handling

Unit 2: Anatomy of, and Injury to the Spine
Unit 3: Fitness & Flexibility
LO6: Describe current concepts of back care to include: good back posture at home and work, awareness of the importance of being fit and flexible, understanding muscle groups relevant for manual handling, working within their capabilities and taking personal responsibility for good back care.
Carry out a range of appropriate manual handling techniques to include lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, supporting or putting down of a load by one of more persons.
Garry MacSweeney / Tony Doyle / Judy Morrissey
Internal certification
Unit 1: Safety Legislation
Unit 6: Basic Assistance Techniques
LO9: In relation to the handling of people, to explain the concept of balanced decision-making, infection control, challenging behaviour, critical medical emergencies, human rights and the fluctuating mobility of the person.
LO10: Apply the main principles of manual handling to a range of basic people handling techniques to include:
Guidance on the use of a wheelchair
Assist from sitting to standing and walking
Guiding the falling person to the floor
Manual Handling
Unit 4: Ergonomics & Risk Assessment
LO7: Describe the components of a risk assessment process using the T.I.L.E. methodology.
Define the main components, normal purpose and function of the
spinal column
to include discs, ligaments, bones, joints, nerves and muscles;
Explain the main
risk factors for back injuries related to manual handling
to include the postures to be avoided; and how and why injuries commonly occur.
manual handling
Explain the main components of relevant health and safety legislation and guidance documents to include the current
manual handling of loads regulations
Discuss the health and organisational benefits of an
integrated approach
to the management of manual handling to include manual handling organisational procedures, staff consultation, risk assessments, implementation of appropriate controls and relevant training.
Duty of Care
An integrated approach to the management of manual handling
The Rehab Group Safety Statement:
Lower back pain affects approximately 80% of the population at some stage in their lives. Health care costs and the cost of sick leave and early retirement because of back pain are estimated at €800 million.
Our ability to move rests upon our use of the muscles and bones which constitute our musculoskeletal system. This system gives us our form and shape and provides our bodies with support and stability. It is responsible for bodily movements.
The skeleton supports the body and maintains its shape
Lumber region most often
Injured when handling loads
Sacro-iliac joint (Pregnancy)
Keep spine in natural s-shape position
So that trunk is in alignment
With minimal pressure on joints & soft tissue
Lumbar spine
5 Vertebrae
Joined by discs & facet joints
Considerable movement
Takes most of the force acting on the spine
Unit 5: Principles of Lifting
Decision Making
Unit 1: Legislation
Unit 2: Anatomy of, and Injury to the Spine
Unit 3: Fitness
Unit 4: Ergonomics & Risk Assessment
Unit 5: Principles of Lifting
Unit 6: Basic Assistance Techniques

'Recent statistics from the Health and safety Authority (2007) indicate that, consistent with previous years,
approximately one third
of all reported work-related incidents are triggered by maual handling'
The Health and Safety Authority commissioned a number of research reports into the costs of accidents in the workplace (Millward Brown 2005, Dalley 2004, Mottiar 2004).

The most recent report looked at the costs and effects of accidents using 20 case studies (Hrymak and Perezgonzalez 2007). Nine case studies focused on healthcre workers.

Only one of the nine healthcare studies looked at a manual handling incident. In this case
the cost to the employer was €12,328
and the
cost to the employee was €10,180
The report states that these figures are probably an underestimation of the true costs, both direct and indirect.

What is manual handling?
According to the regulations the definition of "manual handling of loads" is
the transporting or supporting of a load by one or more employees, including lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving of a load...
which, by reason of its characteristics or of unfavourable ergonomic conditions, involves risk, particularly of back injury, to employees
To prevent back injury & its consequences:
Pain & decreased mobility
Affects hobbies, family & social life
Financial consequences if unable to work
Why attend this training?
Pregnant, Post-Natal and Breastfeeding Employees
Physical Hazard - Manual Handling
Intervertebral Discs
spongy centre
tough outer layer
80% water
no blood supply
absorbs shock
gives flexibility to the spine
allows space for nerves to emerge
Effects of Movement on the Disc
Pressure increases towards the back of the spine when bending forwards and to the front when bending backwards.
Postures to be avoided:-
Facet joint
A joint is where 2 bones meet
A ‘facet joint’ is formed when the vertebrae interlock with the one above & below
Take approx. 20% of the force on the spine
These joints are prone to wear & tear (Arthritis)
Soft tissue: ligaments
Taut bands of fibrous tissue
Flexible but not elastic (avoid over-stretching)
Poor blood supply (heal very slowly)
Course Objectives
Participants will be able to:
Define the term Manual Handling
Understand the legislation that governs Manual Handling, primarily the Manual Handling Regulations 1993 & The Safety Health & Welfare at Work Act 2005 & 2007.
Be able to list & apply the 8 Principles of Safer Manual Handling.
List the 4 basic elements of a Risk Assessment
Demonstrate inanimate Safe Handling

Avoid stooping:
Bend knees
Keep back in natural position
Affects of Disc Degeneration
Slack Ligaments
Slipped Disc
Lifting Techniques
Straight Lifting
Injury to bones
Arthritis (Wear & tear)
Incorrect movements done repetitively
Lessons learnt?
As we do not always initially feel pain, when we cause damage to our spine, we may think all is o.k.

But …….

Injuries can build up over time.
Bad postures and bad handling techniques may cause problems later on in life.
What is Fitness?
There are 4 elements to fitness:-
Benefits of Exercise
More stamina and energy
Decreased risk of injury
Improved mental alertness
Improved sense of well-being
Relevant muscle groups

Quadriceps (Thighs)
Abdominals (Stomach)
You Must Assess Your Job To See If You Are Capable Of Doing It Safely
- Task

- Individual

- Load

- Environment

Benefits of Ergonomics
If you assess your job, you will be…
Better able to recognise potentially harmful tasks
Safer – decreased risk of injury
More comfortable – more energy, less stress
More efficient & productive

Work Envelope
Is it possible to find a comfortable keyboard position
Is the work surface area large enough
Some Principles of Ergonomics
Work activities should permit a worker to adopt several different healthy and safe postures.
Work (muscular effort) should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available
Work activities should be performed with joints at about mid-point of their range of movement (especially the head, trunk, arms)

Safer Handling Principles (Set of tools)
Assess (TILE) Know your own capabilities
Broad Base
Bend Knees/ use weight transference
Good Back Posture (Neutral position & avoid combined bending & twisting)
Good Grip (Palmer/elbows tucked in)
Get Close To The Load
Move smoothly & keep head up
Move with feet (don’t twist)

Be aware of limitations of team handling
Work with people of similar height

the manoeuvre
Appoint a
Agree a

To ensure a smooth co-ordinated movement (Ready, Steady lift.. pull…lower etc.)

Team Handling
Guiding the falling person to the floor
Assist from sitting to standing and walking
Guidance on the use of a wheelchair
Under common law the employer has a duty of care to employees to provide:
A safe place of work
Safe plant and equipment
Safe systems of work
Safe people
Employees Duty of Care
Employees also have duties laid upon them by the Safety, Health & Welfare at Work Act, 2005. These include:
To take reasonable care of themselves and others;
To co-operate with the procedures and systems of work made by the employer;
To make correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) supplied by the employer;
To report without delay any defective plant or equipment or systems of work or PPE to management.
1/3 of all injuries reported to HSA are caused by manual handling
Many injuries build up over a period of time rather than as the result of one incident
Early return to work key to recovery
Vertebral/Spinal column:
Muscles are formed by the binding together of small muscle fibres into bundles. Muscles are classified as skeletal, cardiac or smooth.
Ligaments connect bones to bones to form a joint.
The Skeleton is the body's supporting structure. The skeleton has the following important functions:
The joints between bones allow for movement, The skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton at a number of locations on the bones and they provide the power that enables movement.
The skeleton provides protection to a number of organs (e.g. the skull protects the brain and the ribcage protects the lungs and the heart).
The spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. It serves to protect the spinal cord within the spinal canal.
Manual handling involving excessive bending, twisting and over-extension may cause damage to the joints.
Repeated lifting to and from a height may cause the facet joints to be pressed together creating intolerable strain.
Muscles receive signals from the brain via nerves. Nerve impulses cause contraction of the muscle fibres. The contraction of muscle fibres causes the shortening of the muscle and causes movement at the joint.
When ligaments become over-stretched they lose their ability to hold the joints of the back in their correct position resulting in back sprain.
Discs are located between the vertebrae. Each disc has two functions:
it forms a fibrocartilaginous joint which permits slight movement of the vertebrae; and
it works like a ligament by holding the vertebrae together
A fracture is any break in the continuity of the bone. A fracture can result from a medical condition that causes the bones to weaken such as osteopoross or cancer. Spinal fractures may pinch, compress or tear the spinal cord.
Sacro-iliac joint (Ligaments slacken)
(Pregnant women be careful as ligaments slacken)
Risk factors for back injuries relating to manual handling
“Ability to do ones daily work with enough energy left over”
Elements of stretching:-
Warm up/cool down
Avoid sudden jerky movements
Stretch to point of slight discomfort
Hold stretch for 30 seconds x 3 times
Stretch for minimum of 6 weeks to restore some flexibility
... is the ability of the body to exert itself for a period of time.
Experts recommend that those with average levels of fitness undertake at least 30 minutes per day of endurance activities such as walking, cycling, swimming etc
... refers to the ability of your joints and muscles to move within a certain range.
... of muscle assists the protection of joints and muscles from injury (e.g. the abdominal and back muscles support the back during lifting).
... improves the function of the heart; it also improves the function of the lungs as it increases circulation efficiency and reduces blood pressure.
Ear should be over the shoulder
Shoulder should be over the hip
Hip should be over the knee
Knee should be over the ankle

Ergonomics in the workplace is all about the 'fit' between people and their work
Ergonomics aims to make sure that the tasks, equipment, information and environment fit each worker.
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