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Canine Parvovirus

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by

Kyle Scroggins

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Canine Parvovirus

Current Strategies: Disadvantages
There is no anti-virus, vaccines only work in prevention
Citations
Diagnosis:
(1) http://www.i-detect.eu/en_produ.php
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20960181
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962408
(4)http://www.abdserotec.com/an-introduction-to-elisa.html
Promising New Method
Virus v. Virus
Current Methods:
Canine Parvovirus (CPV) Type 2c
Prevention
Background
Discovery
Infection
Symptoms
Prognosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Current Strategies: Advantages
Relative Mortality Rates
Lasting effects
Early 1960's CPV-1
Stems from Feline Panleukopenia Virus
Virulence
Myocarditis
vomitting, diarrhea, lethargy
dehydration
swelling of the heartmuscles
Ran ramped through kennels and pounds
Began as CPV2, now has many identifiable
strains
PCR
Some steps are automated
High sensitivity and specificity
Expert performs tests
ELISA Test
Easy to perform and interpret
Saves time and dependable results
Prompt, accurate, and specific
High rate of success
Requires very little antigen
More flexibility
ELISA Tests
Four types of test
Direct
Fast but less reliable
Indirect
Only increase sensitivity
Competition
Very complex steps
Sandwich
Easy to follow
Increase sensitivity and specificity
Involves Direct and Indirect steps
ELISA Sandwich Test
Steps of Sandwich test
Fecal sample (Capture)
Tube A (Detect)
Wash
Tube B
Observe results: color change in tube B
First found in animal fecal and fluids
Severe Gastroenteritis
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/06/22/eurheartj.ehr165/F1.expansion.html
Discovered as an affliction in 1920
Transferred through fecal matter and fluids
Virus has a long life, very durable
Infects intestinal crypts, lymphatic tissue,
and cardiac muscle

The survival rate of the animal will depend on how quickly the CPV is diagnosed, treated, and what type of treatment is used. Currently, the most common and effective treatment is done with the hospitalization of the dog.
Hospitalization
http://bakerinstitute.vet.cornell.edu/animalhealth/page.php?id=1089
Two Main Types of Care
IV Drip
Keeping the dog hydrated is key to upping survival odds.
Blood Plasma Transfusion
Will be from a donor dog that has survived the parvo virus .
Both Costly: Ranging from $1,500- 3,000
Soon to
Be
In Home Care
Uncommon Treatments
Using Maropitant (3), an anti-nausea, and Convenia (4), antibiotic for skin and urinary track infections, for at home care.
Cost of only $200- $300
In Body:
Antiviral Drugs, Tamiflu. (1)
Antiviral Proteins (found in silkworm larvae), not approved for clinical use in US. (2)
Bedside Care:
Keep them hydrated, inject fluids, typically an electrolyte solution.
Keep infected puppies together.
Varying survival odds
New Study Performed By Dr. Lauren A. Sullivan at Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital
Current Strategies: Disadvantages
PCR
Requires laboratory
Labor intensive
Time consuming
Requires an expert on hand
ELISA Test
Must be done manually
Range of success variable

Treatment
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20230441
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9764403
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082784
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17355604
Parvo is incredibly resilient. Thus, the best approach is to stop infection before it happens.
Disinfection


Vaccination



Bleach
Modified live virus
3 shots over 9-12 weeks
+ Booster after 1 year
Canine Adenovirus is very similar to CPV
Current study has only looked at viability in cell cultures
Still a ways away from commercial
viability
Mutated to contain Ad-cIFN-gamma
Infected cells expressed new protein
Protein blocked CPV infection
Another
Promising New Method
Oral Vaccine
Modified E.coli that manufacture and export recognizable virus proteins
Benefits:
Much easier than injection
Don't need a vet
Less risk of minor infection
Disadvantages:
Only temporary immunity
Less robust immunity
(4, 5)
(3)
(1, 2)
Prevention:
(1) - http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/parvovirus
(2) -http://www.pet-informed-veterinary-advice-online.com/images/parvo-vaccines.jpg
(3) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22149493
(4) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23383512
(5) - http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so23_03.gif
Puppies
Adults
Other Methods
Weakened immune system
Gastrointestinal damage
Congestive heart failure
Respiratory problems
Stunted growth
Background:
(1)http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378113511005013
(2)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043787
(3)http://www.vetnext.com/search.php?s=aandoening&id=73055879906%20148
(4)http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/06/22/eurheartj.ehr165/F1.expansion.html
(5)http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/06/22/eurheartj.ehr165/F1.expansion.html
http://www.vetnext.com/search.php?s=aandoening&id=73055879906%20148
By: Jacob Haws
Kyle Scroggins
Jimmy La
Ciara Smith
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