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Copy of Clauses and Sentence Types

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by

Ginny Yewell

on 27 August 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Clauses and Sentence Types

I can
stand
on my own!
Sentences are made up of
CLAUSES
.

A
CLAUSE
is a group of words with:

a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE
(who performs the action)
(the verb, objects, and phrases governed by the verb)
Examples
*Subjects in red
*Predicates in blue
We

will try.
My pet gorilla

is not a good driver.
Even when

I

thought she'd gone,
My mother

took the dog to the vet.
Although

nobody

came,
My brother's bedroom

smells like old socks.
There are two types of clauses.
Independent
Examples
*Subjects are in red
*Predicates are in blue
I

laughed
.
She

told me yesterday
.
My best friend

pretended to faint
.
I
never thought this day would come
.
Dependent
I need
support!
**Notice that some of these examples are complete sentences, but some are fragments.
Examples
*Subjects are in red.
*Predicates are in blue.
*Green words are dependent.
When
I

laughed
Because

she

told me yesterday
After
my friend
pretended to faint
If
I
had thought this day would come
**Notice that even though each example has a subject and a verb, the example is a fragment because it does not express a complete thought.
**Notice that each example is a complete sentence which stands on its own by expressing a complete thought.
Clause Quiz #1
Cross out the dependent clause, and circle the independent clause.
John watched the movie even though the rest of us went to sleep.
Whether independent or dependent,
all clauses have both a subject and a verb.
You can combine
INDEPENDENT
and
DEPENDENT
clauses to create
four
kinds of sentences.
Simple
-One independent clause
-No dependent clauses
Simple=1 IC
Examples
My aunt enjoyed taking the hay ride with you.
Coming to this school greatly improved my social life.
Students danced at homecoming.
Compound
-Multiple independent clauses
-No dependent clauses
-Connects clauses with
conjunctions or coordinators like:
F
or
A
nd
N
or
B
ut
O
r
Y
et
Examples
The clown frightened the little girl, and she ran off screaming.
Edward loves Bella, but Jacob wants to protect her.
She asked me to clean my room, but I didn't want to.
Complex
-One independent clause
-At least one dependent clause
-tends to use a subordinator such as
after
although
because
when
since
,
,
,
, or
.
Also may use relative pronouns such
as
that
,
which
, or
who
.
Examples
After I came home, I made dinner.
}
Dependent Clause
Ron begins to sneeze whenever the cat rubs him.
}
Dependent Clause
Independent Clause
Independent Clause
}
When Tim ran across the wet grass, he slipped.
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
}
}
Complex-Compound
-Multiple independent clauses
-At least one dependent clause
While Tom reads novels, Jack reads comics, but Sam reads only magazines.
Tom likes cats, but Jack likes dogs because cats sleep too much
People who read comics rarely read novels; they often find books boring.
}
}
}
Examples
}
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
Independent Clause
}
}
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
Independent Clause
}
}
}
Independent Clause
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause
}
http://prezi.com/d7a-oov1nxql/phrases/?kw=view-d7a-oov1nxql&rc=ref-3637764
Essential & Nonessential Clauses and Phrases
Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences
Language Study
Phrase:

A group of words that is missing either a subject or missing the matching verb or both
Because it is missing one of these two requirements, it does not meet our definition for a complete sentence. Therefore, a phrase by itself is considered a fragment, or an incomplete sentence.
Examples of phrases
the ancient oak tree (Missing a verb)
hitting the window (missing a subject and verb)
on a jet plane (missing a subject and verb)
These sound pretty weird by themselves, right?

We're going to take it a step further
Types of Phrases
Prepositional Phrase:
On the playing field,
I was unstoppable.
Adjective Phrase:
Alert and focused,

Adverb Phrase:
Joe sprang across the line of scrimmage
Joe anticipated the next play.

quickly and .
"-ing" Phrases:
efficiently.
Springing into action,
Joe blocked his
opponent.
We are almost done, I promise!
Essential clauses and phrases
appear after a noun and are necessary in the sentence to convey the meaning.

Example: Please replace all the windows
that are broken.
*If the clause "that are broken" is removed the repairman will replace ALL windows, not just those that are broken.

Nonessential clauses and phrases
add extra information but do not take away from the meaning of the sentence
.

Example: My cousin Jim,
who lives in Denver
, is coming to visit this week.
*If "who lives in Denver" was removed, the sentence would still tell us your cousin is coming to visit.

set within commas!
Why does this matter?
Enhance your writing!

When you are done, sit quietly
and wait for the next set of instructions
Compound= 2 (or more) IC
On your index card copy this sentence:
Jane yelled.
*Now, add a
nonessential clause
to make it more interesting. (You might need to rewrite your sentence)
*Circle the nonessential clause.
*Now add a
dependent clause
to this sentence:
Jane cried.
Complex= 1 IC + 1(or more) DC
Complex-Compound= 2 (or more) IC +1 (or more) DC
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