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Church History III - The Protestant Reformation & The Age of Reason & Revival
Transcript of Church History III - The Protestant Reformation & The Age of Reason & Revival
The Church of Ephesus [Rev2:1-7] THE PERSECUTED CHURCH
The Church of Smyrna [Rev2:8-11] THE ERA OF CONSTANTINE
The Church of Pergamos [Rev2:12-17] THE MIDDLE AGES
The Church of Ephesus [Rev2:1-7] THE EARLY CHURCH
The Church of Ephesus [Rev2:1-7] THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
The Church of Sardis [Rev3:1-6] THE MISSIONARY ERA The Church of Philadelphia
(1789-1914) [Rev3:7-13] Church History by Corey Janz for CH001 taught by
Cisco Gonzalez & Jasmine Alnutt at THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION (1517-1648)
& THE AGE OF REASON & REVIVAL (1648-1789)
The Church of Sardis [Rev3:1-6] (Church History) OCT31 1517 REFORMATION DAY It's actually only Luther's intention to spark a conversation about the abuses of Indulgences by the Catholic Church. He has no idea that his critique will spark the Protestant Reformation... MARTIN LUTHER 1520 & excommunicates him from the Catholic Church. Luther stands before Emperor Charles V to give account for his teachings. He remains insistent on his views of Sola Fide (Faith Alone) & Sola Scriptura (Scripture Alone). 1522 MARTIN LUTHER TRANSLATES THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT GERMAN (whilst hiding out in Prince Frederick III's Wartburg Castle, who has likely saved his life by providing him sanctuary.) 1523 ULRICH ZWINGLI Draws Up His Own "67 Theses", which are heavily influenced by Martin Luther’s work. ANABAPTIST MOVEMENT Begins the 1525 5 months after the movement takes form, Hippolytus becomes the first Anabaptist martyr at the hands of the Catholic Church. 1525 Anabaptist leader Felix Manz is martyred: the first Anabaptist martyr at the hands of Protestants. 1527 1534 KING HENRY VIII issues THE ACT OF SUPREMACY This act officially kicks off England’s separation from the Catholic Church & institutes the Church of England (aka the Anglican Church). 1534 Luther, alongside a group of fellow scholars, finishes the German translation of the Old Testament. JOHN CALVIN 1534 publishes his first edition of INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION John Calvin publishes his final edition of All 80 chapters! INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION 1559 ...surprisingly, his theological views have changed
very little over the years & textual elaboration... His first edition is comprised of 6 chapters. Where Luther insists on
"JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH" 1540 THE SOCIETY OF JESUS forms JESUITS aka the 1542 . Goa GOA, INDIA JESUIT MISSIONARY During the remaining 10 years of his life, Xavier very successfully shares the Gospel and sets up the Catholic faith in Asia - notably in India, the Indonesian Islands, and Japan. Other Catholic missionaries - like Matthew Ricci in China - build upon the legacy he starts. 1545 COUNCIL OF TRENT the Almost 30 years after Reformation Day in 1517, Pope Paul III calls the Council of Trent; while intended to reconcile differences between Protestantism and Catholicism, it in fact solidifies their division. CHURCH WARS The Council of Trent's result in distinguishing sides has Europe in disarray. Coexistence is not a cultural option in 16th Century Europe, so wars break out between Catholic & Protestant parties with the hopes of gaining Christian dominance. PEACE OF AUGSBURG Lutherans are given rights in Germany,
but the Calvinists and other Protestant groups are marginalized... 1618 -1648 THIRTY YEARS' WAR Fighting erupts once more due to religious differences; it continues, however, as a political battle for national border expansion. 1555 1648 PEACE the WESTPHALIA of Held with the purpose of restructuring the Church in England, the assembly marks the first time in history that denominationalism is seriously considered.
Coexistence starts to be recognized as a viable solution... 1943 -1949 WESTMINSTER ASSEMBLY the It ends the Thirty Years War, among other feuds. It’s also the first time the Pope has been excluded from a political council since the beginning of the Era of Constantine! It stands amongst the first impactful pieces that lead to the separation of Church & State. Calvinism, Lutheranism, & Catholicism are all recognized as legitimate faiths and allowed to coexist within any nation or territory. It's a collective sigh of relief from all warring, utterly exhausted sides. so begins AGE OF REASON & REVIVAL (1648-1789) the THE ENLIGHTENMENT aka 1669 BLAISE PASCAL'S Pensées A collection of Blaise Pascal’s apologetic writings in defense of the Christian Faith is edited and posthumously published. Pascal’s theological arguments are foundational in halting the progress of Deism and slowing the increasingly humanistic thought of Enlightenment philosophy. 1675 PHILIPP JAKOB SPENER writes PIA DESIDERIA ...in which he proposes (among other things) a back-to-the-Bible approach to Christian living. Spener goes on to become the Father of THE PIETIST MOVEMENT, a spiritual revival in Germany. the Pietist Movement gives wake to THE MORAVIAN CHURCH, a community of believers that has great influence on an Englishman known by many as the greatest evangelist in history... ALDERSGATE EXPERIENCE the 1738 despite being an Anglican clergyman & missionary for years, finally has a sin- cere conversion experience during
a reading of Luther’s preface of Romans at a Moravian Church
meeting in Aldersgate St,
London. Wesley goes on to start & administrate THE METHODIST REVIVAL
in England. He winds up traveling roughly 4 to 5 thousand miles
every year on horseback to preach the Gospel of Christ to as many
villages & cities as possible... He preaches roughly 40,000 sermons
throughout his lifetime! J O H N W E S L E Y , GEORGE WHITEFIELD Goes on a Preaching Tour of The AMERICAN COLONIES 1739 His charismatic preaching style is met with incredible response;
many renew their faith, while countless others convert to Christianity. THE GREAT AWAKENING (1739-1741) His ministry proves to be the main catalyst in uniting the existing scattered pockets of revival in America into 1 big movement, which becomes known as: 1751 Encyclopédie is co-founded & published by DENIS DIDEROT JEAN le ROND D’ALAMBERT & French Philosophers This new Encyclopedia is viewed as the principle representation of the Age of Enlightenment in literary form. It is a vast collection of human learning into a single work. It is also very critical of the Church. 1776 UNITED STATES declares INDEPENDENCE from the BRITISH EMPIRE the of AMERICA Its roots in democracy and its tolerance of beliefs heavily influence governmental perspectives around the world. The Augustinian Monk who struggles through strong convictions of sin & guilt in an era of heavily works-based Christianity. Also the man who comes to insist on "Salvation by Faith Alone",
the man who radically reforms the Christian Faith, and
the man who represents the birth of Protestantism. Martin Luther nails his "95 Theses"
on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. POPE LEO X Condemns Luther & His Teaching Ironically, this is what prompts Luther to write his "95 Theses" in the first place... He is known infamously for the selling of Indulgences in order to continue the building of St. Peter's Basilica. Like much of Medici Family, Leo is a massive benefactor of the Renaissance. He spends an exorbitant amount of the Church's money to fund artists and projects. Sidenote: born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, Pope Leo X is the son of the powerful Florentine Lorenzo de' Medici. Charles declares Martin Luther a heretic. He also grants free reign on Luther's life.
(ie, anyone eager to take it has the full freedom to do so!) "My conscience is captive to the Word of God. I will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither honest or safe. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God help me. Amen." DIET 1521 WORMS the of into Bibel die The reformation guided by this stirring preacher in Zurich (Switzerland) is perhaps a more radical one than Luther's... Where Luther allows whatever the Bible does not prohibit, Zwingli prohibits whatever the Bible does not prescribe. This leads the Swiss Reformation to the alienation of traditional church symbols and ornaments - pictures, candles, etc. Zwingli's movement, then, can be viewed as an early form of Christian Puritanism. There is one further radical step, however, that Zwingli's movement is unwilling to make... Having discovered through New Testament Scriptures that the Early Church Christians came to faith personally & freely, and that there was no Church & State alliance involved - or indeed necessary - this radical "reformation of the reformation" starts to act accordingly. They are soon condemned by Catholics & Protestants alike; labeled the Anabaptists - or "re-baptizers" - by their persecutors (for their decision to be baptized upon personal confession of faith in addition to the infant baptism most of them had already received), many were imprisoned and executed for their convictions toward a personal, non-governmentally mandated faith. Unfortunately for them, their convictions are over a century ahead of their time... today, such freedom is taken for granted in much of the world. Calvin stresses
"THE SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD." This doctrine, [in]famously known as "the Predestination of the Elect", is put forward amongst many other topics of the Faith in this, Calvin's magnum opus. Lands in ST. FRANCIS XAVIER A new disciplined religious order of the Catholic Church, the Jesuits are different than their monastic counterparts in the sense that they are purposed to live in the world - not cloister themselves out of it. The Society of Jesus plays a massive role in the spiritual reformation of the Catholic Church.
They also signify the strength of Catholicism's 'Counter-Reformation' against the Protestants. The first objectives given them:
- Convert the heathen.
- Reconvert the Protestants. Loyola's Jesuits, therefore:
- Travel extensively throughout the world as missionaries.
- Become heavily involved in the religious politics of Europe.
• Their contributions are of particular note at the Council of Trent. ( " P i o u s W i s h e s " )