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Urban Issues and Challenges: an introduction
Transcript of Urban Issues and Challenges: an introduction
Concepts Thank you for your attention! And one more thing... is here •Urbanisation is the process in which the proportion of the population living in urban areas increases. It is the process of transition from a rural to a more urban society; whilst urban growth refers to the absolute increase in the physical size and/or total population of urban areas. Ancient cities to Modern Metropolis 1. CAUSES Urbanisation and Related Concepts History of Urbanisation Rapid Urbanisation in LDCs Cycle of Urbanisation in the DCs 5500 years ago Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1750 Urbanisation in the 20th Century inward migration (rural-urban migration) natural population increase Megacities have populations exceeding 10million
e.g. Tokyo, Delhi, New York City http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/world/06/urbanisation/html/urbanisation.stm 2. PROBLEMS Colonialism In most LDCs, colonial powers like Britain and France had actually created trading and administrative centres out of the colonised states like Singapore and Calcutta. To a certain extent, the colonised states were introduced to a certain level of technology and know-how of a market system and this acted as a head start or foundation after which the city could develop when the colonised countries became independent. Singapore and Calcutta have gone on to become some of the world’s largest and greatest cities. Natural Increase Infant mortality rate was greatly reduced and fertility rates increased in LDCs with technological advances in science and medicine and overall improvement of health care and welfare system. People could now live longer. There was a population explosion in the LDCs, both in the rural areas and also in the cities Rural-Urban migration The key motivating factor in moving to the city is often economic. The city is seen as a place of opportunity and migrants often see a lot of perceived benefits in moving to the city. In the LDCs, most employment growth, improvements in levels of disposable income, expansion of amenities and increases in personal freedom have occurred in urban areas.
The potential attractions of urban living must be set against the lived experience of rural life. This experience is for many a life of poverty, beset by periodic natural disasters. Rural communities often have very little economic and political power to influence and participate in change Brainstorm on the possible factors with your neighbour Role of the Government It is true that central governments often place more emphasis on the growth of the economy in the city and thus often throw in large amount of federal or government funding in developing the city, in turn creating employment and pushing for further industrialisation.
As a result, there are greater access to health care, education and transport services as governments pour in funds to attract labour and also, more importantly, foreign investment. When large companies from overseas locate their plants and operations in these developing cities, employment opportunities are created.
However, this might be very manual jobs and the low wage rate (often due to surplus of labour) meant that the city dwellers often do not earn enough to support their living in the city. Then, they are forced to live in slums and other unfavourable living conditions which might actually bring down the overall standard of living of these city migrants • As depicted in Fig. 4, the city is always changing. The main population movements affecting cities in more economically developed countries are suburbanisation,
counter-urbanisation, filtering, inner city decline and gentrification.
These processes are interrelated and have a variety of socio-economic, environmental and political impacts. Sub-urbanisation Refers to the construction of new housing on green field sites along rural-urban fringe or the periphery of the city.
The term can also be used to refer to the construction of non-residential developments on green field sites, such as shopping centres and industrial estates Urban Sprawl •Urban Sprawl occurs when a city spreads outwards. It might be a consequence of population growth or it may be the consequence of the suburbanisation of population or economic activity Advances in automative engineering Improvements in transport infrastructure Aging physical environments and infrastructure of city centre immigration into city centres Focus of investment on suburbs and neglect of inner city Decentralisation of industries Counter-Urbanisation •Counter-urbanisation is occurring when the number of people moving out of a city exceeds the number of people moving in. Counter-urbanisation will occur when people decide, for whatever reason, that living in smaller towns or even rural areas is preferable.
•Counter-urbanisation does not affect all cities in developed countries but it has been a feature of many North American and northwest European cities since the 1970s. However, there seem to be sufficient evidence to suggest that the process is slowing or even reversing in European cities. Re-Urbanisation •Re-urbanisation or urban renaissance is occurring when, after a period of decline and decay, the population (re-population) and economic activities (re-generation) of a major city, especially the inner city areas, begin to increase again. Some strategies to revitalise city centres include:
Improving public transport links to the city centre by providing ‘park and ride’ schemes
Active marketing or re-imaging of the city centre
Building of cultural and entertainment facilities in the city centre
Pedestrianisation of shopping streets to improve safety and to provide a more attractive shopping environment
Install video surveillance to reduce crime and thus improve personal safety