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Advanced Grammar

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by

Brian McGrew

on 24 April 2017

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Transcript of Advanced Grammar

1. Honesty
is
the best policy.
2. Water
boils
at 100 degrees Celsius.
3. Seattle, the emerald city,
lies
in the Pacific Northwest.
4. Michael Jordan
fakes
to the right and
attacks
left leaving his defenders easily behind him.
5. I
think
battery powered cars are the future.
Continued
11. They currently
live
in Madrid.
12. Picasso
is
able to use everyday objects to create abstract scenes.
13. I
accept
your apology.
14. It
takes
two to tango.
15. Mr. Watson
asks
Mr. Holmes whether he would prefer whiskey to tea.
Continued
6. We
leave
for Athens next week.
7. And then he
goes
, “What about Johnny?”
8. First
attach
the trunk with the provided screws to the floor. Next…
9. We
meet
at Empire States Building, and from there, the tour
leads
up 50th street to Madison Square Garden.
10. Stock market
jumps
over 10% in response to Boeings new model
Explain the highlighted verbs
Explain the verb usage
1. She
finished
her degree in 2014.
2. The Danube
was
an important means of transportation for the Hapsburg Empire.
3. When I was young I
went
trick-or-treating every Halloween.
4. He always
wanted
and
strived
to be a good person.
5. She
jumped
over the fence and
ran
down the path.
6. If I
were
rich, I would retire early.
7. I
hoped
you could give me hand.
Continued
11. I
was reading
from 10:-11:00 pm.
12. I
was driving
home when the Twin Towers
fell
.
13. I
was thinking
about the problem and Jane
was goofing off
.
14. She
was
very stable, but he
was
usually
changing
jobs.

Continued
8. He
jumps
over the bar!/He is
jumping
over the bar.
9. You
jump
to conclusions. You
are

jumping
to conclusions.
10. Upper Austrians
are drinking
more wine and less beer.

continued
6. Real Madrid
has won
the European Cup six times.
7. US presidential elections
have annoyed
me for as long as I can remember.
8. They
’ve had
that car for at least ten years.
9. I am back at work now because I I
have recovered
from the flu.

Give the name & usage
Day One
Day 2
Day 3
Advanced Grammar
Usage categories for the simple present
1. State use
2. Event use
3. Habitual use
4. Future present
5. Historical present
6. Imaginary use
Considering the
progressive p.23
1. Momentary verbs.
2. Transitional event verbs
3. Activity verbs
4. Process verbs
5. Verbs of inert perception
6. Verbs of inert cognition
7. Verbs of attitude
8. State verbs of have and be
9. Verbs of bodily sensation
Continued
15. I
guess
she will win the race.
16. I
am thinking
as an architect when I say this.
17. What are you doing? I
am reading
a book.
18. The number of impoverished Austrians
is increasing
.
19. I
smell
something rotten in the fridge.
Continued
20. My tooth
aches/is aching
today.
21. I
intend
to finish my studies next year.
22. I
own
a car.
23. Someone
is knocking
at the door.
24. Look he
’s tasting
the rocky mountain oysters!
Continued
25. I can’t see the bus. Well I
am looking
at it!
26. I
am hearing
you loud and clear.
27. Ken
was dying
a slow but painless death.
28. I
’m hoping
you will say yes.
29. My little brother
is being
nice; he must want something.

Continued
30. Liz
told
me about it. vs. Liz
was telling
me about it.
31. I
am running
every day now.
32. Often when I
am eating
my lunch, I
have
to answer the phone.
33. We
are
constantly
recording
seismic activity from the pacific ring of fire.
34. He
is
always
saying
annoying things.
1. I’
ve been
in Austria since 2003.
2. She
’s
already
had
treatment against cancer.
3.
Have
you ever
been
to Wankham before?
4. He’
s cut
his hand with a pocketknife and needs to go to the hospital.
5. He
wants
to run in the marathon but can’t because he
has broken
his leg.

10. Some of the best bridges
were built
in ancient Rome. Some of the best bridges
have been built
in North America.
11. The president
ruled
with an iron fist. The president
has ruled
with an iron fist.
12. Jane
has injured
her elbow. Jane
injured
her elbow.
Explain change in meaning
Day 4
What tense/aspect fits to each adverbial of time?
1. Earlier this year
2. This year
3. Since Thursday
4. On Thursday
5. Lately

Continued
6. After breakfast
7. Today
8. Always
9. Now
10. At last year’s cook-off the chef
had burnt
his hand prior to the contest and couldn’t participate.
11. Yesterday he asked them whether they
had been
to Rome before.
12. The car
had
already
been
a pile of junk before I bought it.
13. Her grandfather
had played
that song for years before she played it.
14. I went inside after I
had parked
the car.
Explain the tense & aspect
Continued
15. They look tired. Yeah. They’
ve been playing
tennis.
16. Who
’s been drinking
my vodka? Who
has drunk
my vodka?
17. They
’ve been renovating
the house. They
’ve renovated
the house.
18. I
’ve been attending
class quite regularly.
19. She told me that she
had been attending
class quite regularly.
20. The contest
was taking place
the next day.
21. The contest
was going to take place
the next day.
22. Twenty years later they
were to (would)
be the richest oligarchs the country had ever seen.
23. Jane, who later
became
president,
was
a well-known actress at the time.
24. We
used to go
down to grandma’s house every month's end or so.
25. He
used to be
taller.
Continued
Day 5
Describe usage
1. Your hair
will fall out
when you
get
older.
2. You
’ll miss
the show if you
don’t
hurry.
3. By the age of 18 you
will have seen
30,000 deaths in television.
4. I
shall
request a police escort to ensure your safety.
5. …and God’s wrath
shall fill
the hearts of men with fear.
Continued
6. I’
m going to
stay home tomorrow.
7. The car is making a strange noise. I
’ll take
it to be serviced tomorrow.
8. The cave looks like it
is going
to collapse.
9. I’
m attending
the ceremony tomorrow.
10. When you
arrive
, you
will be
tired.
Continued
11. I
’ll scream
if you
do
n’t leave me alone.
12. Make sure that you
arrive
early.
13. We
change
the clocks to summer time on Sunday.
14. We
leave
for Madrid tonight.
15. This time next year we
will be lying
on the beach in the sun.
Continued
16. I
’ll be flying
to San Francisco next week, due to the problems out west.
17. If you wish to join me, I
’ll be leaving
soon.
18. We are out of beer. I
’ll go
to the store and get some.
19. A: We are out of beer.
B: I know. Don’t worry. I
am going/(to go)
to the store tomorrow.
Typical elements of the progressive
Temporariness
lengthening Duration
limiting duration
incompleteness
temporal framing
Modal verbs
1. Can
a. Possibility
b. Ability
c. Permission
2. May
a. Possibility
b. Permission
c. Formal, formulaic
(similar to subjunctive)

3. Must
a. Obligation (authority)
b. Requirement
c. Logical necessity
4. Have to
a. Obligation
b. Requirement
c. Logical necessity

Examples
a. She is a real polyglot, she
can
speak eight languages.
b. Where is Jen? She
must
be out walking the dog.
c.
May
he rot in hell.
d. Keep an eye out for dark clouds, there
may
be bad weather coming.
e. Miss, you
can
stay in the waiting room until we are ready.
continued
f. All EU-citizens
can
go to Austrian universities for free.
g. Since the question has been asked, we
must
find an answer.
h.
May
I use the restroom?
i.
Can
I see your new mobile phone?
j. You
must
return the book by tomorrow.
Not covered today
a. Relations between
can, may, must
and
have
to pp. 81-84

b.
Shall
pp.88-89

7.
Will
a. Prediction/predictability
b. Intention
c. Willingness
d. Insistence
Examples
a. A mother bear
will
attack if it perceives its cubs as endangered.
b. Dad
will
help you with your homework; he is always ready to help.
c. Don’t worry about the snowy conditions, they
will
have arrived by now.
d. I
’ll
clean my room tomorrow.
e. It doesn’t matter how stormy it is. He
will
go out fishing regardless.
Modality cont.
1. They
may
be thirsty.
Could
they be thirsty?
2.
Need
you mark so strict?
3.
Need we; must we; do we have
to take the final?
4. We
’ll have to
meet up next week. We
must meet
up next week.
5. The tsunami
might
reach the Pacific coast.
6. He
can
clean the house very well.
7. They
might have come
already. They
might have come
last year.
8. The LSD
may have affected
her brain.
9. The LSD
may be affecting
her brain.
10. They
will have finished
dinner by now. Don’t call now; they
will still be eating
.
Should and ought as weaker equivalents of must
11. Theresa
must
fix the car she crashed. Theresa
should
fix the car she crashed.
12. They
must
be finished by now. They
should
be finished by now.
13. Theresa
must
fix the car she crashed. Theresa
ought to
fix the car she crashed.
14. They
must
be finished by now. They
ought to
be finished by now.
15. I
should have bought
an umbrella. He
must have bought
an umbrella.
16. Our daughter
ought to/should
pass the exam.
Semimodals of constraint
17. She
needs
a nap. She
needs to
rest.
18. The lad
needs
a good scrubbing. The lad
needs to
be scrubbed.
19. You’
ve got to
be kidding.
20. They
’ve got to
finish the project as soon as possible
21. They’
d better behave
when we are at the restaurant.
22. I think we’
d best leave
.
23. Edelweiss flowers
are not to be
found below 2000 meters.
24. What
is to be done
with all this trash?
25. It
is to be hoped
that a peace agreement will be reached.

Not factual, but theoretical or hypothetical

- Conditional
o Real condition (theoretical) or unreal condition (hypothetical)

- Name form:
o Present subjunctive (be) or past subjunctive (were)
o Perfect infinitive
o Watch for putative should

- Consider reference to time:
Subjunctive
1. It is wished that the Pope
support
a new peace agreement in the Middle East.
2. If he
be
found guilty, he will be sentenced to life in prison.
3. She insisted that he
finish
the remodel before the end of summer.
4. If he
were
a better man, he
would
n’t have quit.
5. If you
want
to be a better man, you
will
have to work hard at it.

6. His teacher has decided that the test
(should) be
cancelled.
7. What is the square root of 144? How
should
I know?
8. Why
should
we bother with him? He doesn’t want our help.
9. It is troubling that politics
should
come to this!
10. If they
finished
yesterday, they
will
most likely join us tomorrow.
11. If I
had wanted
to talk to you, I
would have
called.
12. If her father
loved
her, she
would
be much happier.
13.
It’s time
you
ate
by yourself.
14. Calm down. It’s not
as though
you
had
to retake the exam.
15.
I wish
I
did
n’t have to take this class.
16.
If only
I
had listened
to my parents.
17. I’
d rather
you
were
n’t going out tonight.
18. I
’d
think hard about the situation before you give up.
19. I
’d
hate living in the north.
20.
Would
you like a beer with that?
21. Pp 122-124 Markers for hypothetical meaning.
22. If you
get
a flat in Portland, we
could
see you more often.
If you
had gotten
a flat in Portland, we
could have seen
you more often.
23. If you
are
really
feeling
ill, we
must go
to the doctor.
If you
had
really
been

feeling
ill, we
would have had to
go to the hospital.
24.
Could/might
I see your new dress?
25. I wonder if he
would
by me new car.
26. There
could/might
be trouble at the football match tomorrow.
27. You
might have told
me.
28. One
would
expect the students to pass the exam.
29. P 132 good review
Indirect or Reported speech
Backshift
Reported feelings and thoughts
Don’t forget the past forms of modal auxiliaries
1. I
like
math.
2. I
went
to the concert on the weekend.
3.
Did
you
go
to the game on Thursday?
4. The old dog
had been loved
until the day
he died
.
5. I love eating at my mom’s house.→ She said she loves eating at her mom’s house.
6. She
has
never
been
to Las Vegas.
7. We
are trying
to finish by eight.
8. I
wanted
to go there, but
didn’t have
time.
9.
Are
you hungry?
10. I
thought
you
were
listening.
11. I
did
n’t know you
liked
herring.
12. I
did
n’t realize that you
were
still here.
13. I
forgot
you
wanted
to come with us.
14. He
may
be guilty.
15. She
could be
responsible; I’
m
not sure.

16. I
must
take the exam.
17. You
should
go to Paris, it’s great.
18. She
should have
asked what color his car was.
19. So that
was
what he
had been
thinking.
20. He
would
see her tonight.
21. “He
won’t
ever accept
no
for an answer.” Thought Angie.
6. Little did we know that the cake had already been eaten.
7. Completely covering the wall was a painting from Goya.
8. Dumb as a door knob he certainly was, he had a heart of gold.
9. Up goes the flag.
10. Why are you here?
Inversion and fronting

Subject-auxiliary inversion
Subject-verb inversion
Fronting adjective and adverbial phrases
Fronting objects and complements
1. Under no circumstances may you leave this room.
2. Amongst thorny brambles lies the tiny fairy kingdom.
3. He said he would be early, and early he was.
4. She had a large fleet of automobiles. The Bentley she rarely used.
5. So strong was the lass that she gave him a good beating.
Syllabus
16. The restaurant owner
says
that the diner has been refurbished.
17. I
go
for a jog every Monday.
18. I
reach
in the top hat,
count
to three and
pull
out the rabbit.
Continued
Simple past
Unitary past
Simultaneous events/states
Sequential events/states
Habitual past
Hypothetical meaning
Reference to present (politeness)
Progressive aspect
Temporariness
Incompleteness
Lengthens duration of event
Limits duration of a state
Temporal frame
Habitual, limited duration
Progressive futurate
Expressing annoyance
Future reference
1.
will
+ Infinitive
(alone or followed by the Perfect Infinitive)
a. neutral prediction
b. intention: decision made now
2.
Subordinate future Simple Present
i.e.,
Make sure that you arrive on time.
3.
be going to
+ Infinitive
a. (prediction based on) present cause
b. intention: decided in the past
4.
futurate Present Progressive
a. arranged future
5.
futurate Simple Present
a. unalterable future
6.
will
+ progressive Infinitive
a. future progressive (temporal frame, incomplete...)
Decreasing Frequency
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