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Collections 5,6 and 8 with Persuasive Essay

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Emily Hoffman

on 28 March 2015

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Transcript of Collections 5,6 and 8 with Persuasive Essay

Collections 5, 6 and 8
Irony and Ambiguity
Symbolism and Allegory
Literary Criticism: Evaluating Style

In this collection, we will be reading works with surprising twists through the literary techniques of irony and ambiguity.

We will also be focusing on evaluating an argument through reading and writing a persuasive essay.
Collection 5: Irony and Ambiguity
In this collection, we will read an allegory with many layers of meaning. By reading this selection, you will learn to appreciate how symbols speak to the reader's imagination and make interesting connections.
Collection 6: Symbolism
and Allegory
Collection 8: Evaluating Style
through Literary Criticism
Elements of Literature Vocabulary from all 3 collections
Collections 5, 6 and 8 Test
Elements of Literature
irony evidence
verbal irony analogy
situational irony emotional appeals
dramatic irony loaded words
ambiguity anecdotes
inference intent
motivation
argument
credible
claim/opinion
generalization
logical appeals

Irony
*The differences between what we expect or what seems suitable and what actually happens*


Ambiguity
*A quality that allows something to be interpreted in several different--sometimes conflicting--ways.*


Inference- Making a guess using clues and insights given in the story

Motivation-The reason(s) characters behave a certain way

"The Lady, or the Tiger?"
by Frank R. Stockton
In this fairy tale, a king puts his subjects through public trials with verdicts that are determined by chance. The accused subject must choose to open one of two identical doors. Behind one door is the reward--a beautiful maiden to marry. Behind the other door lies the punishment--a ferocious tiger. When the princess's lover is discovered and jailed, the trial takes on personal significance for the king. The young man's hopes for survival rest with the princess.
Evaluating an Argument
For Homework: Complete the worksheet. Be sure to answer the question on the bottom!
Argument- a series of statements designed to convince you of something.

When you evaluate an author's argument, you act somewhat like a juror serving on a trial. Like a juror you need to analyze the evidence presented to you and decide whether the argument is sound
4 steps to determine whether an author's argument is credible
Credible- believable and convincing
1. Understand the claim or opinion
* Read through the argument to make sure that you understand the matter being discussed.

* Identify the claim or opinion-what the author is trying to prove.

* Often the author's claim is stated in a generalization-

generalization-a broad statement that covers many situations. For example, 'All jurors should be allowed to take notes during a trial.' OR 'All girls love the color pink and all boys love the color blue.'
2. Identify
the Support
* An author must provide support for a claim in order to create a persuasive argument. Some types of support include:
3. Evaluate the Evidence
* An argument is only as strong as its evidence. In order for the evidence and argument to be strong the author must...

- provide evidence that directly relates to the argument

- present sufficient evidence to back up generalizations and prove the claim

- use both valid/logical appeals and emotional appeals
4. Identify the
Author's Intent
* Think about why the author is making this argument.

* Be sure that the author has not been biased or prejudiced.

* intent-purpose influences the tone of the argument. For example, if the author wants the readers to take action, the tone might be strongly emotional and urgent
Logical appeals (LOGOS)- reasons used to show that the opinion of the author is valid.

For example, 'All jurors should be allowed to take notes during a trial because notes can help them remember important information for reaching a verdict.'
Evidence- the information that authors use to support their reasons. Every generalization, to be believable, should be backed up by evidence. There are 4 types of evidence:
1. facts
2. statistics
3. examples
4. quotations from or opinions of experts
Analogy- a type of logical appeal that compares something complex or unfamiliar to something familiar.
Emotional Appeals (PATHOS)-to win readers over, authors sometimes appeal to readers' emotions rather than their reason.

Emotional Appeals include
Loaded Words- words with strong emotional connotations

Anecdotes- brief stories that draw an emotional response
Ethical Appeals (ETHOS) - addresses readers sense of right and wrong. This relies on the fact that the writer is ethical.

- When a writer uses ethos well, readers trust what they have to say
- Writers are likable
Persuasive Writing
Step 1: Choose an Issue
*Should students be allowed to have cell phones in class?
*Should students in private schools have to wear uniforms?
*Should college athletes be paid for playing?
*Should high school students be required to take Spanish class?
*Should cell phone use be made illegal in all states for all drivers?
*Should students at West Catholic have iPads in a 1:1 structure?
*Should students who commit cyber-bullying be suspended from school?
*Should students be allowed to eat during all classes?
*Is it appropriate for school administrators to punish students for inappropriate use on social media accounts (twitter, facebook, etc.)?
**You may come up with another issue to argue in your persuasive essay, but you must clear it with me first.**
Step 2: Write an
Opinion Statement
Share your clear and well-defined perspective with readers by drafting an opinion statement. This is your thesis statement. Your opinion statement should clearly state both the issue and your position on it.
Step 3: Consider Your
Purpose and Audience
Purpose- In a persuasive essay, your purpose is to convince readers to share your opinion on or to take the action you suggest. In order to persuade your readers effectively, you must understand them.

Audience- Think about your audience by jotting down answers to the following questions under your free-write:

* What will make my audience care about this issue? Identify specific ways in which the topic affects your readers' lives.

* What is the counterclaim of your position? Consider how your issue looks from their point of view.

* What background information on my topic will help readers understand my opinion? Are there any words or ideas I will have to define or explain further?
Step 4: Gather Support for
Your Position
To be convincing, give 3 strong reasons to support your opinion statement. These reasons will tell why your position is correct and will appeal to your reader's logic, emotions, and ethical beliefs.

I expect that you will have a balance of all three appeals, but more logical appeals using facts, statistics, expert opinions, etc.
EVIDENCE: Within each reason, you must give at least 2 pieces of evidence to support it. The chart on your rubric provides you with multiple types of evidence. You must use at least 5 different types of evidence.

Evidence must be relevant, or clearly related to your issue and should be precise and specific.
Step 5: Plan Your Draft
Your essay should be smoothly and logically organized. To do this, remember that ideas presented at the beginning and end of your essay will be most effective to readers. Because of this, place your 2nd strongest reason first and your strongest reason in the last body paragraph.

To help compose your draft, you may involve research and you need to be tracking your sources to cite them later.
Step 6: Evaluate and Revise
Your Draft
With a partner, peer review your essay. Don't be shy to write suggestions on your partner's essay. Help them be clear and persuasive. You will want the same help from them.

Complete the half sheet and attach to your rough draft when your partner is finished.

Over the weekend, continue working on your persuasive essay. You still have your rubric and outline and your draft should be saved to a computer. Continue any necessary research and editing.
Elements of Literature
symbol
public symbol
multiple meanings
implied meaning
allegory
cause
effect
The Golden Kite, The Silver Wind by Ray Bradbury
Symbol- often an ordinary object, event, person, or animal to which we have attached extraordinary meaning and significance. A symbol stands for more than itself. They allow for layers and layers of meaning.



Public Symbol- A symbol that is known and accepted by the general public. It shows up in art, literature and media.
Allegory- a story in which characters, settings, and actions stand for something beyond themselves. In some, the characters and setting represent abstract ideas or moral qualities. In others, characters and situations stand for historical figures and events. They should be read both on their literal and and symbolic level. They are often intended to teach a moral lesson.
Multiple meanings- symbols that have more than one layer of meaning. Many symbols have open-ended interpretations.




Implied meanings- the main idea of the symbol is suggested. You can only discover it's true meaning by making inferences.
Cause- explains why something happens

Effect- explains the result of something that has happened

GUIDELINES:
- Watch for words that signal cause-and-effect relationships such as because, for, since, as a result, and therefore.
- Notice how characters or situations change. Why do they change and what event causes the change?
- Try to predict the effects of events.
People should try to get back to basics and connect with nature more than they do today.

Recycling is the best way to preserve natural resources and to reduce the costs of processing garbage.
Summary
In Ray Bradbury's cold war allegory, an ancient Chinese ruler, or Mandarin, grows distraught after learning about events in a nearby town. A rival ruler has changed the shape of his city walls to resemble the outline of a pig. The Mandarin is upset because his own town walls resemble an orange. Because a pig can eat an orange, the change is an evil omen. Upon his daughters advice, the Mandarin orders his own town walls to be rebuilt to resemble a club, which can beat a pig. Instead of solving the problem, it launches a type of "walls race" as each town tries to outdo the other. Read to discover what resolution, if any, the rival towns come to.
Background
This story was published during the cold war between the United States and the former Soviet Union. After World War II, the two nations began competing with each other for power. They never met in direct military combat, but each nation built up its nuclear arsenal, creating a dangerous situation. In 1949 the Soviet Union built an atomic bomb which prompted the US to test the first hydrogen bomb in 1952. Both countries continued developing more lethal and more expensive weapons. Some credit this "arms race" for bringing the fall of the Soviet Union's communists system by bankrupting it.

In ancient China, the story's setting, sons were much more highly prized than daughters, and most women were prevented from having any public role.

Knowing this, what do you predict makes this tale an allegory?
Group Activity
Read the allegory in groups of two. After reading, complete the cause and effect chart with corresponding questions.
For Homework
Answer questions 2-8 on page 372 in complete sentences.
Elements of Literature
style
diction
sentence patterns
tone
mood
formal style
informal style
connotation
dialect
Style
style- emerges through the way a writer's uses words to recreate an experience.

Diction- word choice. Style is revealed mainly through diction.

Connotation- a part of diction that refers to words with different meanings that have emotions and associations.

Dialect- The speaking characteristics of a particular region or group of people.
The Vocabulary
of Criticism
To Da-duh, in Memoriam
by Paule Marshall


Sentence Patterns- the type and style of sentences. Some writers use elegant, multisyllabic words while others prefer short, everyday words. Some writers use short, punchy sentences while others use long, complex ones.

Informal writing style- what you would use when talking with friends; conversational

Formal writing style- what you would use to write a research paper; uses rich and complex vocabulary

Attitude and Emotion
Tone- a writer's attitude toward a subject, a character or audience; isn't only what you say but how you say it; is revealed through diction and theme.


Mood- the feeling a story evokes in its readers.
Literary critics often focus on style. They evaluate how well a writer uses language, sets a mood, and establishes tone. As you take on the role of a literary critic, you will find the following words helpful when describing tone and mood.
admiring
affectionate
bitter
comic
forgiving
mocking
sarcastic
serious
vengeful
Words for Tone
Words for Mood
eerie
gloomy
joyful
mysterious
peaceful
sad
In this short story, Paule Marshall uses the diction of Barbados to examine conflicts between youth and old age; city and country. The story's nine year old narrator journeys from New York City to Barbados with her mother and older sister to visit Da-duh, her grandmother. While there, the narrator and Da-duh develop a ritual of taking walks around Da-duh's land. Da-duh proudly points out fruit trees and sugar canes and demands that her granddaughter admit that these things don't exist in New York City. In return, the narrator both captivates and scares Da-duh with her descriptions of life in the big city.
For Homework:

Complete the questions on the half sheet as well as the Thinking Critically questions 4,5,7,8 and 9 on page 539
While Reading, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper:
1. What are the words that the narrator uses to describe da-duh the first time she sees her? What are some connotations for these words? pg. 528

2. What simile is used to describe her grandmothers face on pg. 528? What mood does this create?

3. How many years has it been since the narrator's mother has seen da-duh?
4. What does da-duh call the narrator? pg. 529

5. What does da-duh fear? What does the narrator fear? What do these very different fears reveal about their characters? pg. 532

6. What does the narrator compare the "incredibly tall royal palm" on pg. 534 to in New York? How does da-duh react to this?

7. Describe what happened the day da-duh died? What action shows how she was still strong even while she was close to death?
Situational Irony
* Describes an event that is not just surprising but acutally contrary to what we expected*
Verbal Irony
*used when someone says one thing but means the opposite*
Dramatic Irony
*often occurs in plays; when readers know whats in store for a character, but the character does not know**
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