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Unit 2 AOS 3 CH10 & 11 Health & Individual Human Development of Australia's Adults
Transcript of Unit 2 AOS 3 CH10 & 11 Health & Individual Human Development of Australia's Adults
is usually defined as the period between 19 and 40 years of age.
Although there are always individual differences, this stage of the lifespan is a time when physical growth is completed and development of the muscles, internal organs and body systems should be at their peak condition..
Middle adulthood is the period from 40 to 65 years of age. The changes in physical development are continuous and vary greatly between individuals, but a gradual decline in many physiological functions may be evident from the age of 30.
Late adulthood, the final stage of the lifespan, is the period from 65 years of age until death. During this stage the efficiency and working of the body systems continue to decline, and the physiological changes of older adulthood become more visible.
Health Status of Australian Adults
Health status is the level of health of an individual, community or group.
The determinants of health and individual human development of Australia’s adults
Sun protection and smoking
Health & Individual Human Development of Australia's Adults
Physical changes that occur to the functioning and appearance of the human body as it ages are known as physiological changes
Maximum adult height is reached. Young adults finish growing and their height remains constant throughout early adulthood.
Cells continue to divide for the replacement, repair and maintenance of body tissue, rather than for growth.
Peak bone mass is achieved. Normal ageing is accompanied by the loss of bone tissue throughout the body. Loss of bone density begins in the late 30s, so it is important for adults to maintain their bone density through diet and physical activity.
Sensory organs are at their sharpest (ears, eyes, nose, mouth, skin).
Muscular strength reaches its peak.
Reflexes of the nervous system are at their peak.
Women’s reproductive function has an impact on the changes experienced during this stage. It is usually in early adulthood that women go through childbearing, and their bodies will change physically to carry out this function.
Most people in early adulthood see themselves as being at their peak in terms of health, lifestyle, sex life and physical condition.
Estimates from the 2007–08 National Health Survey show that almost two-thirds (64 per cent) of 24–34 year olds rated their health as excellent or very good, and this proportion declined as age increased (Australia’s health 2010).
Social development refers to learning the skills, knowledge, values and behaviours that are appropriate to interact with others.
Social development during adulthood includes acquiring new roles, responsibilities and expectations, both within the family (e.g. as parents and grandparents) and outside it (e.g. at university and in the work environment).
Gaining independence and developing identity become the main focus during early adulthood. This could include...
In developing their independence, young adults are faced with many decisions. Starting a career is seen as important for both males and females and will often include completing their secondary education and possibly continuing on to further study. Being part of a new environment requires individuals to adapt to new roles and the expectations linked to those roles. Whether they are entering a tertiary institution or moving straight into a job, individuals will form new relationships with other students, lecturers, tutors, work colleagues and employers. Good communication skills and the ability to work well with others are critical requirements for a successful work life.
selecting a life partner
Finding a permanent partner and being involved in an intimate relationship is a common goal for most young adults. The establishment of a stable long-term relationship is linked to a range of positive attitudes such as confidence and acceptance. Intimacy requires an individual to sacrifice some of their independence for another person. Taking on the role of spouse or partner requires many social skills, and having good role models improves the chances of success in a relationship.
getting married or learning to live with a partner.
Getting married and establishing a family is often delayed when young adults choose to focus on career development. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), there has been a trend towards getting married at a later age. The median age for first marriages has increased, from 28 years in 1998 to 29.7 years in 2011 for men and from 24 years to 28 years for women. Choosing to get married at an older age means that individuals may have developed their social skills and have a better understanding of how to behave in a relationship.
managing a home.
Many young adults are staying in the family home longer and delaying living independently, thus also delaying this aspect of their social development. Moving out of the family home and living independently (whether in a share house, cohabitating with a partner or living alone) is another developmental milestone of early adulthood. The individual takes on responsibilities such as paying bills, rent or a mortgage; maintaining a clean living environment; establishing the expectations of each member of the household; developing relationships with neighbours and learning to be part of a community.
starting a family.
Starting a family is also an important developmental milestone for most individuals. The role of a parent is linked to many societal and legal expectations including registering the birth; providing a name for the child; and the giving of appropriate care, love and support.
The decision to take on the role of parenthood is also influenced by society and technology. Individuals have many choices, including the choice of whether or not to have children.
Case study review
1. Identify the five traditional milestones for the transition from adolescent to adulthood that have been identified by sociologists.
2. Explain what is meant by the term ‘the age 30 deadline’.
3. What is Relationships Australia NSW CEO Anne Hollonds’s opinion of the delay in settling down?
4. What is your opinion? Do you agree or disagree with Anne Hollonds? Justify your response.
5. What experiences does Matilda Brown identify with being ‘grown up’?
6. How do these experiences impact on the social, emotional and intellectual development of an individual?
"Not quite grown up"
Once you've made it through childhood & youth, most of your 'growing' and development is finished... or is it???
In pairs, make a list of developmental (PIES) changes that you think might occur in adulthood
1. List the main physiological changes that occur during early adulthood.
2. Loss of bone density is a normal part of the ageing process. At what age does it begin?
3. Define social development.
4. a) Identify the main developmental milestones that have a significant impact on social development during early adulthood.
b) Select one of the developmental milestones identified in part (a) and explain how it impacts on social development during early adulthood.
5. The Australian Bureau of Statistics data suggest that the age for first marriage is getting later.
a) How has the median age for men and women changed since 1998?
b) Suggest how this may impact on the social development of young adults.
10.1 TEST your knowledge!
Emotional development is the capacity to express feelings and emotions and the ability to understand and control moods and feelings.
It is closely linked to self-concept, the way an individual views themselves.
What are the most significant life changes that occur in early adulthood?
In pairs, talk about & write down how emotional development is significant in these life changes.
The ability to cope with these changes will depend on the emotional development of the individual. The availability of good role models at work, at home and in the community will help to foster an individual’s self-concept, thus impacting their emotional development.
Young adults still living at home need to adapt to the changing nature of family relationships. In some cases, the way parents treat their children when they reach early adulthood will not change even though their children may be financially independent. Parents not only provide role models for their adult children, they also need to provide the necessary support and encouragement to allow their children to successfully develop into well-adjusted young adults.
Forming and maintaining relationships, in particular intimate relationships, in early adulthood will affect the development of self-concept. Failed relationships or lack of support and encouragement from family, work or the community can lead to poor self-concept, impacting emotional development.
Could these experiences enhance emotional development?
Good emotional development is the ability to understand and control the emotions, and to respond well to the changes taking place around and within the individual. This is not always easy but it is important for emotional growth. Formulating an identity and developing a sense of self are key components of early adulthood. Establishing a career and learning new roles and expectations will impact on employment status, job satisfaction, financial security and self-concept.
Intellectual development involves an increase in knowledge and the ability to think and reason. The foundations of intellectual development are formed during the early stages of the lifespan, when language skills are developed, knowledge gained, memory skills formed and the ability to understand and reason are developed. All these skills are further developed during early adulthood.
Attending university or training programs usually involves learning the skills and acquiring the knowledge for their chosen career or job, thus improving their intellectual development. In the work environment, new employees will be inducted into the workplace and taught the necessary skills and information essential to carrying out their tasks. This requires intellectual development for success.
The roles acquired by an individual as they move through early adulthood further add to their experiences and provide them with knowledge and understanding.
How an individual deals with this information is considered part of emotional development, but acquiring the knowledge and meaning is linked to intellectual development.
An adult’s ability to reason, solve problems and strategise are all important components of intellectual development. It is experience gained over time that leads to a better understanding of the world around us.
10.2 TEST your knowledge (Q1 - Q3 only!)
1. Define emotional development.
2. Using an example relevant to early adulthood, explain how emotional and social development are interrelated.
3. Define intellectual development and give an example that is relevant to young adults.
- Bone density is lost
- The metabolic rate decreases
- Fat deposits accumulate
- Decreased need for energy
- The cardiovascular system changes
- Sense of hearing declines
- Eyesight starts to deteriorate
- Wrinkles (loss of skin elasticity)
- Greying of hair
- Hair can also start to thin
- Women experience menopause
-Men experience a decrease in the production of sperm & testosterone
Think about the video - What physical changes are occurring?
Some aspects of social development that traditionally occurred in early adulthood are increasingly becoming part of middle adulthood due to the delay in selecting a life partner or getting married, setting up and managing a home and starting
The range of possible lifestyles during this stage of the lifespan is endless.
Adults will develop socially from their career achievements, meaningful relationships with their partner and other significant friendships, commitments that they have to various community or social groups (e.g. school, church, sporting groups) and enjoyable interactions with others. These interactions with family, work and community allow adults to develop their communication skills and make a valuable contribution to the improvement of their environment.
Establishing, and maintaining an economic standard of living is an important aspect of adulthood and drives many decisions relating to work/career, housing and other material possessions. As children leave home, life priorities often change and relationships with family and friends are redefined.
Middle adulthood is ideally characterised by self-confidence and an acceptance by the person of who they are and what they want to achieve.
By this stage, an individual will have already experienced many successes and failures. The way they coped with these situations will have shaped their emotional development, and future experiences will continue to affect this.
Factors such as an unsuccessful relationship, job dissatisfaction and difficulty coping with the demands of parenthood can have an impact on the emotional development of an individual and affect their health status.
intellectual development involves the increased ability to think and reason and the development of knowledge and skills. The rate of decline in our ability to think and reason is fairly gentle.
During middle adulthood, knowledge is still being gained and the capacity to store knowledge and further build permanent memories is limitless. The ability to process information and solve problems will generally improve during this stage of the lifespan. Life experiences and maturity often give older people more wisdom than the young.
The onset of mental deterioration can be delayed if adults keep their minds active as long as possible.
Brain training can help!
Go online and find a brain training computer game. Have a go!
Ask a parent or another adult in your life to have a go at the task.
Write a paragraph discussing the game, how it might delay mental deterioration and how you and your adult went!
Watch the video and answer the following questions.
1. Why do we age?
2. How does the brain change as it ages and what are the consequences of these changes?
3. Identify and explain the factors that may slow down the ageing process.
The time of our lives: Episode 1
TEST your knowledge
1. Explain how changes in an individual’s metabolic rate can be linked to weight gain in middle adulthood.
2. What impact do the changes to the cardiovascular system have on an adult’s ability to be physically active?
3. Both eyesight and hearing gradually decline as an individual ages. Outline how these physiological changes may impact on the daily lives of individuals in the middle-adulthood stage of the lifespan.
4. What is menopause?
5. Outline the main physical changes that take place during menopause.
6. Suggest how the physical changes during menopause can affect a female’s social and emotional development.
7. Females experience menopause, but do males go through any changes in their reproductive functioning? Explain.
8. Define intellectual development and provide three examples relating to middle adulthood that illustrate the definition.
10.3 Test your knowledge
Australia’s current life expectancy is 79.3 years for males and 83.9 years for females, so many adults could spend 18 years or more in late adulthood. Factors such as genetics, quality of diet, level of physical activity and other lifestyle choices will determine the impact and speed of the changes associated with ageing.
In pairs or small groups, make a list of as many physiological changes you can think of...
loss in aerobic ability
body fat increases
muscle tone decreases
cell replacement slows
muscle strength, ability & endurance decline
Eyelids thicken and eye sockets appear more hollow
Facial hair grows on women
Skin continues to lose elasticity
In late adulthood, social development could be stimulated by retirement.
This major life event is an exciting culmination of a lifetime of work.
Retirement can also impact negatively and contribute to loss of social contact.
Many decisions and adjustments need to be made;
- change in financial status (income)
- extra time
Think about some possible positives & negatives of this.
Do you know anyone who has retired? What have they done? (holidays, home improvements, become unwell etc)
Coping with the many changes associated with ageing is a challenging time during late adulthood. The transition from work to retirement can have an enormous impact on emotional development.
For many, coping with the change in routine, feelings of boredom, loneliness and loss requires a difficult adjustment.
Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health can create challenges.
For many, being unable to do the things they used to do and in the way they always did them can cause frustration and anxiety.
During late adulthood, gains can still be made in intellectual development through life experiences, but there is a decline in information processing abilities.
Most intellectual abilities will start to decline slowly from about 70 years of age.
The rate of decline is affected by biological, behavioural and social determinants unique to the individual
Time of your life: Episode 2
1. Outline the factors that are linked to the speed at which an individual ages.
2. As an individual ages, their ability to cope with the physical, social and emotional changes can be challenged.
Create a list of suggestions for the actions that people can take to successfully adjust to the ageing process.
10.4 TEST your knowledge
1. Describe the characteristics of physical, social, emotional and intellectual development in late adulthood.
2. Select three of the physiological changes of late adulthood. Identify the main factors that may contribute to variations in the impact and speed of these changes on an individual.
The wooden bowl
Baby-boomers to fill the gap in life-stage wasteland
Case study review
1. Describe how Bernard Salt identifies the following age groups:
a) the late 20s to early 30s
b) the 40s
c) the over-55s (last 30 years of life).
2. With life expectancy increasing to over 80 years, much more time is spent in the late adulthood stage of the lifespan.
a) What suggestions have been made to redefine some of the subgroups within this stage of adulthood?
b) Identify the current and projected statistics for each of these groups.
c) Identify the key characteristics suggested for each group and categorise them as physical, social, emotional or intellectual development by placing a P, I, E or S next to each one.
The age group of 25–64 years represents 54 per cent of the population. It includes both early and middle adulthood, a stage of the lifespan where many changes are taking place and where health issues are likely to emerge.
For adults aged 65 and over, good health is a precious asset that allows them to enjoy a good quality of life, stay independent and participate fully in the community. The Australian population is getting older and as a result the demand for health-care services continues to increase. On a national level the improvement of the health of older Australians is now a priority.
According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), the life expectancy of Australians has increased by more than six years over the past decade. Life expectancy changes over the course of a person’s life, due to changing patterns of mortality.
Life expectancy of Australian Adults
The impact of conditions causing illness, impairment, injury or premature death — known as ‘burden of disease’ — is estimated by the AIHW using the DALY (disability adjusted life years).
The leading burden of disease varies with age
Burden of disease
The conditions that cause the most burden to people aged 25–34 years are
anxiety and depression
for both males and females.
Suicide, self-inflicted injuries, substance use disorders and road traffic accidents also featured highly in the 25–34 year age group for males
Migraine, schizophrenia and infertility were included in the top five for the 25–34 year age group for females
(AIHW) report Australia’s health 2010
25 - 34 years of age
Chronic diseases and cancer were the main causes of burden of disease in the 55–64 year age group.
Coronary heart disease was the largest single contributor for males in this age group, while breast cancer caused the greatest burden for females.
55-64 years of age
The term comorbidity is often used to describe more than one illness, health condition or disorder experienced by a person at the same time.
Figure 10.21 shows the percentage of males and females who have more than one chronic condition.
Deaths occurring during early and middle adulthood are seen as premature given that life expectancy has increased.
10.5 TEST your knowledge (q1-q4 only)
1. Referring to figure 10.18, explain why life expectancy increases as age increases.
2. Both males and females are living longer; however they are not necessarily in good health. Using the data from figure 10.19, suggest how poor health status may impact on an individual’s life.
3. What is meant by the term comorbidity?
a) How does it impact on the cost of health care in Australia?
b) What are the most common disease combinations?
4. Referring to table 10.2, identify two trends in the estimated prevalence of dementia.
Determinants of health and individual human development of Australia’s adults, including at least one from each of the following:
– biological, such as genetics, body weight, blood pressure and blood cholesterol
– behavioural, such as sun protection, smoking, physical activity, food intake, alcohol and drug use and sexual practices
– physical environment, such as housing, workplace safety, neighbourhood safety and access to healthcare
– social, such as media, level of education, employment status and income, the workplace, community belonging; that is, voluntary work and social connections, living arrangements, social support, family and work–life balance.
Determinants of Adult Health & Individual Human Development:
Biological determinants refer to those genetic and physiological factors that affect health and individual human development.
They relate to the functioning of the body and include a range of biomedical factors such as cholesterol levels, blood pressure and body weight. Obesity, raised blood pressure and high cholesterol levels can be indicators of ill-health, particularly in the adult population.
In pairs, you will cover all 4 of the biological determinants identified in your text book (2 each).
The task will run in 3 time controlled blocks
Read & summarise the key ideas of your topic
Complete TEST your knowledge q's
Explain your determinant to your partner
Choose 1 of the following:
Imagine that you are a health promotion officer at a local council. Create a brochure, web page or blog that highlights the risks associated with poor sun behaviours, as well as recognising the importance of vitamin D to the health and individual human development of adults.
Develop a brochure aimed at encouraging adults to quit smoking, making sure you include the benefits of quitting.
You have 30 minutes to complete this task!
Develop a weekly physical activity program for a mother of two school-age children who works full time.
(You will produce a weekly planner)
Consider the times of the day during which physical activity can occur and the type and intensity of the exercise.
The benefits of physical activity to the health and individual human development of adults have been well documented. Physical activity reduces the risk of developing a range of illnesses, some of which may be life threatening, and helps ageing adults to maintain or develop the strength and stamina that enables them to live independently.
What is the recommended amount of physical activity for an adult?
Physical benefits of exercise for adults
Food contains a range of nutrients that are important for the health and individual human development of adults.
All nutrients are required across all stages of the lifespan but the required quantities vary according to age, gender, metabolism and lifestyle.
Growth has ceased by the adulthood stage of the lifespan. As a result, nutrients for the maintenance of body tissue rather than growth become more important.
Complete TEST Your Knowledge 11.7
Alcohol Use and Sexual practices
In pairs, one of you will focus on alcohol use, the other will focus on sexual practices.
- read the appropriate section of the chapter. In your workbook, summarise the concept
- Complete TEST Your Knowledge
- Share your summary & responses with your peer.
! You will be required to write a 2-question quiz to test your partner afterwards
A drug is any substance that produces a psychoactive effect. The National Drug Strategy defines a drug as including tobacco, alcohol, pharmaceutical medications and illicit substances such as heroin and ‘ecstasy’. Illicit drug use is a major risk factor for ill-health and death associated with HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, low birth weight, malnutrition, poisoning, mental illness, self-inflicted injury and overdoses.
Men risk health for a boost of youth
1. What is the main reason for the use of human growth hormone?
2. What do endocrinologists see as the potential risk of using HGH to the health of an individual?
3. Describe the benefits that are outlined for using this drug.
4. Do all health professionals agree about the benefits? Outline the main differences of opinion.
5. Trying to reverse or stop the ageing process has become a multi-billion dollar industry. Describe the impact on the social and emotional development of an individual wanting to fight old age.
... and complete LA 11.9
Physical Environment Determinants of Health
The physical environment impacts on the health and individual human development at all stages of the lifespan.
For instance, access to clean water and sanitation is just as important during the adulthood stage of the lifespan as it is during the infancy, childhood and youth stages.
Without discussing or sharing ideas, spend 60 seconds writing a reflection on 'The Wooden Bowl'
Photo Scavenger Hunt Activity!
Federation Uni and Kurnai College are an environment where a lot of adults spend time.
Spend some time walking around in pairs. You will need to find a photograph for each of the items listed on the table...
Remember, you are looking for things relevant to ADULTS, not you as school students!
You have each been allocated to a group.
In your group, you will be required to create a short presentation to share with the class on Thursday.
- summarise the determinant
- share 3 (or more!) statistics
- include a relevant video that enhances your presentation
Media Analysis: THE NOTEBOOK
After viewing the movie, you are to respond to a series of prompts around determinants of health.
Alzheimers and Dementia
1. Explain the events and symptoms that happened to Susan as a result of Susan’s Alzheimer’s disease.
2. Explain how Susan’s Alzheimer’s disease could have or has impacted on Robert’s mental health.
3. Explain how Alzheimer’s disease impacts on the health of sufferers.
4. How are the global prevalence rates of dementia expected to change between now and 2040?
5. How long before symptoms appear does the process of Alzheimer’s disease begin?
6. How could early detection improve the health of sufferers?
7. Is there currently a cure for Alzheimer’s disease?
8. Explain why it is not feasible to scan a whole population in a PET machine.
9. Comment on the benefits of a cure for Alzheimer’s disease for:
(b) The health system
"Aussie Drinking Culture"
Alcohols burden of disease report (2014) found that alcohol is responsible for 15 deaths each day - and 430 hospital admissions a day!
to watch video
Each group has been given a story.
In your group, read and discuss the story.
Create a dot-point summary of the article to share with the class.
What determinants (other than Behavioural) are evident in the article?
Quiz: Department of Heath physical activity
Groups of 3 - 4 are required for this activity
What are the major nutrients and their purpose???