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Elwha Dam

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Chris Santos

on 6 June 2017

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Transcript of Elwha Dam

Historical Background
Thomas Aldwell started construction on the dam in 1910.
Historical Background
Fish runs were put in in 1915, but ignored by 1922.
Historical Background
In 1927 another dam called the Glines Cayon dam was built.
Historical Background
The Elwha dam was built at river mile 4.9.
Historical background
Both dams were in place when the olympic national park was created.
Historical Background
The dam became operational in 1913.
Historical Background
The Glines Canyon dam was built eight miles upstream from the Elwha dam.
Elwha Dam
By: Vikranth Mandadi
Environmental Impact
By not putting fish ladders in, Aldwell ignored the requirement to let fish through the dam.
Environmental Impact
There were even dead pools of fish, below the dam, from trying to get through.
Environmental Impact
Elwha dam is a sign that dam building went to far and causes environmental issues.
The dams created some problems like silt blockage and erosion of the river banks.

Environmental Impact
Since the dam were built, 18 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the two resuares.

Environmental Impact
In October 1992, President George Bush signed Public Law 102-495 (the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act; the Elwha Act), which is a negotiated settlement involving all parties to the FERC proceeding.
Environmental Impact
Removing the dams will create a natural flow of sediment from the mountains to the coast; rebuilding wetlands and beaches.
Environmental Impact
Because of the dam removal, in 25 years the fish population in the Elwha river, is estimated to go from 3,000 to 400,000.
Environmental Impact
Environmental Impact
After the two dams were built salmon populations plunged by 99 percent.
Environmental Impact
The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, in partnership with NOAA, is restoring habitat forming processes in the lower river to speed the recovery of the river and create refuge habitat for salmon to access during the dam removal.
Environmental Impact
After the dams were removed, the trapped sediment moved downstream to restore the beach at the river's mouth.
Environmental Impact
The two dams essentially divided the river into three sections cutting off fish.
Economical Impact
Power generated by the dam helped fuel the local economy.
Economical Impact
Demand for more power resulted in the installation of two additional turbines.
Economical Impact
By modern standards, the two dams were giving off relatively low hydropower.
Economical Impact
The Elwha dam had two gated spillways and four plugged outlets, where the Glines Canyon dam had one gated spillway and one abandoned outlet.
Economical Impact
Over time, as adequate, affordable electrical power became available from other sources and the hatchery failed to offset the drop in available salmon, locals started questioning the need for the dams.
Economical Impact
In addition to salmon recovery, dam removal is expected to bring increased value to local and national communities through new recreational and commercial opportunities and other economic, social, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits.
Economical Impact
Most agencies were skeptical and believed restoring salmon via fish passages was very unlikely and the cost of installing fish passages would likely outweigh the benefits.
Cultural Impact
During the 1970’s the Elwha tribe asked the agency called the FERC to create a more permanent solution for dam safety.
In 1855 the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe signed the Treaty of Point No Point with the United States. This treaty states that the tribe retains the right to fish the Elwha river in perpetuity.
Cutural Impact
Cultural Impact
The Elwha dam negated these treaty rights.
Cultural Impact
The building of the Elwha dam caused the Klallam tribe to go far away to the Skokomish Reservation.
Cultural Impact
October 31st 1912 the foundation of the dam failed and the Indian tribe living downstream heard trees crashing and rushed to high grounds. Luckily no loss of life, but a lot of property damage.
Culural Impact
For the Indian tribes, living near the dams, there was always the fear of flooding and when it would rain hard at night, the tribal leaders would stay up and see if it would flood.
Cultural Impact
Now that the dam is removed the lower Elwha tribe will have access to scared sites and there fish culture is coming back.
Cultural Impact
The Klallam Tribe’s natural territory is larger than any current Reservation in Washington state.
Cultural Impact
The Elwha tribe argued that fishing rights, granted to them long before the dams were in place, were useless if the dams eliminated the salmon.
Cultural Impact
Olympic National Park has turned the dam sites into educational exhibits and permanent interpretive centers and were opened in may 2014.
Cultural Impact
To back-up the Act and encourage funds to be appropriated for the project, the Elwha Tribe funded a contingent valuation study to find citizens’ willingness to pay at local, state, and national levels.
Cultural Impact
The restoration act directed the Secretary of the Interior to study and report to Congress on river restoration alternatives and authorized him to acquire and remove the dams if he found necessary.
Economical Impact
The Elwha river dam’s hydroelectricity provides electricity for paper mills nearby.
Economical Impact
After many tries people finally fixed the foundation of the Dam by filling the hole with debris and sealing. The fill with "mattresses" made of fir boughs weighted in place with dirt and rock.
Historical Background
The Elwha river is only 45 miles long and contained 250,000 to 500,000 fish before the dam was built. The river was a big economic support for the Klallam tribe.
Historical Background
The dam was destroyed by detonating a battery of explosives.
Historical Background
On August 26, 2014, the final series of charges inside the dams were detonated and the water began to flow freely.
Historical Background
Eighty-three percent of the river is protected inside Olympic National Park.
Historical Background
When the dams needed to be relicensed in the 1980s, controversy broke out over the lost salmon spawning ground and the fate of the dams.
Environmental Impact
The dam removal kicked off in 1978 when Elwha Dam failed to pass its safety inspection.
Historical Background
The removal of the Elwha Dams will transform the entire ecosystem.
Historical Background
People had been fighting to tear down the Elwha Dam since the 1960’s. River restoration law was finally passed by congress in 1992 which mandated the full restoration of salmon and the Elwha river ecosystem. The $325 million dollar project started in 2011 and ended in the summer of 2012.
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