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Transcript of Immune System
Mouth and Stomach
Even if foods are handled safely, they still contain potential pathogens. Saliva in your mouth contains chemicals, and your stomach produces acids to destroy these pathogens.
Your breathing passages defend you from many pathogens you inhale.The nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi have hairs, mucus, and cilia, all of which trap pathogens from the air. Sneezing and coughing also force out pathogens.
White Blood Cells
White blood cells are disease fighters. phagocytes is a white blood cell that engulfs pathogens and destroys them by breaking down. Phagocytes are involved in then Inflammatory response.
Chemicals produced during the inflammatory response sometimes cause a fever. Fevers can help fight the infection.
During this response, capillaries widen in the area with pathogens. This enlargement increases blood flow to the area. Fluid and phagocytes lea out of the capillaries, and the affected area becomes red and swollen. The phagocytes engulf the pathogens and destroy them.
The lymphocytes called B cells produce proteins that help destroy pathogens. These proteins are called antibodies. When antibodies bind to the antigens on a pathogen, they mark the pathogen for destruction.
A T cell is a lymphocyte that identifies pathogens and distinguishes one pathogen from another. Each kind of T cell recognizes a different kind of pathogen. Antigens help the T cell recognize the pathogen. Antigens are molecules that the immune system recognizes either as part of your body or as coming from outside your body.
Your Body's First line of defense
When you get a disease the immune system, in response creates antibodies. The next time the disease invades the immune system will produce antibodies quickly. So the body will not become sick again. This is called active immunity. this can also happen with vaccines.
The Immune Response
During the immune response T cells and B cells help destroy pathogens. After the person recovers, some T cells and B cells become memory cells. If that pathogen invades again, these memory cells recognize the antigen. They start it quickly so the body won't get sick again.
Vaccination is another way to gain immunity. Vaccination or immunization, is the process by which harmless antigens are put into a person's body to produce active immunity. Vaccinations are given by injection, by mouth, or through nasal spray. The substance is vaccination is a vaccine. A vaccine usually consists of weakened or killed pathogens that trigger the immune response into action.
Passive immunity results when antibodies are given to a person.Unlike active immunity, passive immunity usually lasts no more than a few months.