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Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era 1800-1816
Transcript of Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era 1800-1816
Problems with Foreign Powers
Jefferson Takes Office
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The War of 1812
There are two parties in the election. Thomas Jefferson represented the Democratic-Republicans and won the election. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans argued over what ideas can help the nation.
The Democratic-Republicans won, but there was a problem. A tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the Democratic-Republican that want vice president.
Jefferson won because one of Alexander Hamilton's friends persuaded six Federalists to vote for Jefferson. People were overjoyed by Jefferson's election.
Jefferson believed that the federal government should have less power than it had had under the Federalists. So he ended many Fedreralists programs.
He later made changes to the Federalists' financial policies by using revenues from tariffs and land sales to reduce the amount of money owed by the government.
Jefferson didn't have much control with the courts because Federalists had the control. John Adams has seen that with the Judiciary Act of 1801.
Before Jefferson left office, Adams chose John Marshall to be in charge of the Democraitc-Republicans. Marshall made many decisions witht the court. One of the most important decisions of the Marshall Court was Marbury v. Madison.
Thomas Jefferson chose a youg officer, Meriwether Lewis, to lead an expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Lewis turned to his old friend, William Clark, to select and oversee a volunteer force, which they called the Corps of Discovery.
The Corps of Discovery soon became known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
The explorers headed up the Missouri River with instructions from Thomas Jefferson saying to explore it and hope to find a water route across the country.
The explorers traveled only about three miles and reached the Mandan Indian villages in what is now North Dakota. They also met British and French-Canadian trappers and traders.
In the spring of 1805, the expedition continued. Sacagawea, her husband, and her baby went with them.
On their way to the west, the expedtition had to stop at the Great Falls of the Missouri.
The explorers then journeyed to the mighty Columbia River, which leads to the Pacific Ocean.
The Lewis and Clark expedition brought back a wealth of scientfic and geographic information, and tales of adventuire.
A French trapper, his 17-year-old, Sacagawea, and their baby went with Lewis and Clark on their expedition.
Sacagawea was a Shoshone woman whose language skills and knowledge of a geography would be of great value to Lweis and Clark-especially when they reached the area where she was born.
When they traveled to the Rocky Mountains, Sacagawea excitedly pointed out Shoshone lands. Eager to make contact witht the tride, Lewis and a small party made their way overland.
Sacagawea acted as a n interpreter and guide on the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Thomas Jefferson wanted to focus on domestic concerns when he too office.
It was hard to separate from other nations because Americans were all over the place trading. But the Lewis and Clark expedition and the Louisiana Purchase would bring closer contact with people from other nations.
By 1805, British made a blockade so that America couldn't go in and trade. The British did this becaus ehtey didn't want America taking their food supply and giving it to their enemies. This angered America and France.
British also interfered with U.S. trade by the impressment, or kidnapping, of American sailors ot work on the British ships. Between 1803 and 1812, the British impressed about 6000 American sailors.
Instead of declaring war, Jefferson asked Congress to pass legislation that would stop all foreign trade. It didn,t help at all and it harmed everyone. In the next election, James Madison took office and changed that law. He fixed the problem by letting America trade with any other country besides France and British.
Since the Battle of Timbers in 1794, Native Americans continued to lose their land. Thousands of white shelters had swarmed into Ohio and then into Indiana.
Jefferson's policy was to get Native Americans to farm land, convert to Christianity, and live as white settlers lived.
Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, vowed to stop the loss of Native American land. He believed that the reason Native Americans continued to lose their land was because they were separated into many tribes.
He concluded that Native Americans need to do what the white Americans did:unite.
That September, William Henry Harrison and others signed a Treaty of Forte Wayne to sell over three million acres of land. But Tecumseh declared the treaty meaningless.
After the Treaty of Forte Wayne, Native Americans began to answer Tecumseh's call for unity.
But his efforts failed in 1181, while Tecumseh was recruiting tribes for his alliance, the Shawnee were defeated by Harrison's forces at the Battle of the Tippecanoe. It was a severe setback for Tecumseh's movement.
After the battle of Tippecanoe, Tecumseh and his warriors found a warm welcome with the British in Canada. At that point, the Native Americans and the British became allies.
Leaders such as Congress Henry Clay of Kentuky angrily demanded war against Britain. Westerners who called for war are called War Hawks.
Other Americans sought war because of the British violations of American rights at sea.
Urged on by Jackson and the War Hawks, Congress declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812.
Britian didn't want war with the U.S. because it was already involved in another war with France.
The War of 1812 had two main phases:devoted little energy to the conflict in North America and the second phase began after the British defeated France in April 1814.
The American amry was weak when the war was declared. Some of their victories boosted their confidence. Oliver Hazard Perry, an experianced officer, took charge of an inflant fleet. In the battle, America won and that victory put an end to the British threat to the Northwest and also claimed the life of Tecumseh, who died in the battle for the British.
After defeating Napoleon in April 1814, Britain turned its full attention to the United States. The commander of Fort McHenry had earlier requested a flag so large that the British will have no difficulty in seeing it. Francis Scott Key watched the all-night battle and discovered that the flag was still flying. He expressed his pride in what became the U.S. national anthem.
Meanwhile, in the north, the British sent a force from Canada across Lake Champlain. In the south, the British moved against the strategic ports of New Orleans. The British attcked Jackson's forces on January 8, 1815. Then there was made the Treaty of Ghent.
The treaty showed that there was no winner and the U.S. proved that it could defend itself against the mightiest military power of the era.