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MA thesis final
Transcript of MA thesis final
10% of all lands in the U.S. over-farming the establishment of family estates the Dust Bowl sod houses Homesteaders had 5 years improve:
a : to enhance in value or quality : make better
b : to increase the value of (land or property) by making it more useful for humans (as by cultivation or the erection of buildings Samuel Colt, American firearms inventor, dies the 225th year the speed of light is measured successfully the 2nd year of the Indian Wars 1862 evidence of improvements how's the view? improve file improve b : to increase the value of (land or property) by making it more useful for humans (as by cultivation or the erection of buildings) to improve the land SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That the fifth section of the act entitled "An act in addition to an act more effectually to provide for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States, and for other purposes," approved the third of March, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, shall extend to all oaths, affirmations, and affidavits, required or authorized by this act.
SEC. 8. And be it further enacted, That nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prevent any person who has availed him or herself of the benefits of the first section of this act, from paying the minimum price, or the price to which the same may have graduated, for the quantity of land so entered at any time before the expiration of the five years, and obtaining a patent therefor from the government, as in other cases provided by law, on making proof of settlement and cultivation as provided by existing laws granting preëmption rights Chap. LXXV. -- An Act to secure Homestead to actual Settlers on Public Domain.
Be It enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in assembled, That any person who is the head of a family, or who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and is a citizen of the United States, or who shall have filed his declaration intention to become such, as required by the naturalization laws of the United States, and who has never borne arms against the United States Government or given aid and comfort to its enemies, shall, from and after the first January, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, be entitled to enter one quarter section or a less quantity of unappropriated public lands, upon which said person may have filed a preëmption claim, or which may, at the time the application is made, be subject to preëmption at one dollar and twenty-five cents, or less, per acre; or eighty acres or less of such unappropriated lands, at two dollars and fifty cents per acre, to be located in a body, in conformity to the legal subdivision of the public lands, and after the same shall have been surveyed: Provided, That any person owning and residing on land may, under the provisions of this act, enter other land lying contiguous to his or her said land, which shall not, with the land so already owned and occupied, exceed in the aggregate one hundred and sixty acres. SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That the person applying for the benefit of this act shall, upon application to the register of the land office in which he or she is about to make such entry, make affidavit before the said register or receiver that he or she is the head of a family, or is twenty-one year or more of age, or shall have performed service in the army or navy of the United States, and that he has never borne arms against the Government of the United States or given aid and comfort to its enemies, and that such application is made for his or her exclusive use and benefit, and that said entry is made for the purpose of actual settlement and cultivation, and not either directly or indirectly for the use or benefit of any other person or person whomever; and upon filing the said affidavit with register or receiver, and on payment of ten dollars, he or she shall thereupon be permitted to enter the quantity of land specified: Provided, however, That no certificate shall be given or patent issued therefor until the expiration of five years from the date of such entry; and if, at the expiration of such time, or at any time within two years thereafter; the person making such entry; or, if he be dead, his widow; or in case of her death, his heirs or devisee; or in case of a widow making such entry, her heirs or devisee, in case of her death; shall prove by two credible witnesses that he, she, or they have resided upon or cultivated the same for the term of five years immediately succeeding the time of filing the affidavit aforesaid, and shall make affidavit that no part of said land has been alienated, and that he has borne true allegiance to the Government of the United States; then, in such case, he, she, or they, if at that time a citizen of the United States, shall be entitled to a patent, as in other cases provided for by law; And provided further, That in case of the death of both father and mother, leaving an infant child or children, under twenty-one years of age, the right and fee shall enure to the benefit of said infant child or children; and the executor, administrator or guardian may, at any time within two years after the death of the surviving parent, and in accordance with the laws of the State in which such children for the time being have their domicil, sell said land for the benefit of said infants, but for no other purpose; and the purchaser shall acquire the absolute title by the purchase, and be entitled to a patent from the United States, on payment of the office fees and sum of money herein specified. SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That the register of the land office shall note all such applications on the tract books and plats of his office, and keep a register of all such entries, and make return thereof to the General Land Office, together with the proof upon which they have been founded.
SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That no lands acquired under the provisions of this act shall in any event become liable to the satisfaction of any debt of debts contracted prior to the issuing of the patent therefor. SEC 5. And be it further enacted, That if, at any time after the filing of the affidavit, as required in the second section of this act, and before the expiration of the five years aforesaid, it shall be proven, after due notice to the settler, to the satisfaction of the register of the land office, that the person having filed such affidavit shall have actually changed his or her residence or abandoned the said land for more than six months at any time, then and in that event the land so entered shall revert to the government. SEC. 6. And be it further enacted, That no individual shall be permitted to acquire title to more than one quarter section under the provision of this act; and that the Commissioner of the General Land Office is hereby required to prepare and issue such rules and regulations, consistent with this act, as shall be necessary and proper to carry its provision into effect; and that the registers and receivers of the several land offices shall be entitled to receive the same compensation for any lands entered under the provision of this act that they are now entitled to receive when the same quantity of land is entered with money, one half to be paid by the person making the application at the time of so doing, and the other half on the issue of the certificate by the person to whom it may be issued; but this shall not be construed to enlarge the maximum of compensation now prescribed by law for any register or receiver; Provided, That nothing contained in this act shall be so construed as to impair or interfere in any manner whatever with existing preëmption rights. And provided, further, That all persons who may have filed their applications for a preëmption right prior to the passage of this act, shall be entitled to all privileges of this act: Provided, further, That no person who has served, or may hereafter serve, for a period of not less than fourteen days in the army or navy of the United States, either regular or volunteer, under the laws thereof, during the existence of an actual war, domestic or foreign, shall be deprived of the benefits of this act on account of not having attained the age of twenty-one years. hover and press play after "proving up" I own about six feet of land in rural Nebraska My land is just outside Stromsburg, the self-proclaimed “Swede Capital” of the state I grew up about 90 miles west in Omaha, the city where I was born houses fences landscaping A Nebraska tourism slogan once claimed the state as "Where the West Begins" Locations given for the beginning of the "West" include the Missouri River the intersection of 13th and O Streets in Lincoln the 100th meridian or Chimney Rock The outbreak of the Bubonic plague in seventeenth-century England The Great Plague of 1665 human and animal interference but to check the spread of disease instigated the passage of laws requiring that bodies be interred at least six feet below the earth’s surface to avoid not only the hazard of The legal requirements for interment vary from state to state California law requires that caskets be covered with only 18 inches of turf, or one-and-a-half-feet Between 1825 and 1892 in Nebraska, there were a series of 18 different treaties between Native American tribes and the U.S. government ceded lands cede: surrender surrender: capitulate capitulate: under specified conditions Conditions: Contents of the treaty with the Pawnee, 1857, from the full text of the treaty Lands hereby ceded by the Pawnees to the United States.
Payment to Pawnee.
United States to establish manual labor schools.
Children to be kept at school.
Pawnees to be protected in their new homes.
To supply certain tools, etc.
Farming utensils and stock.
To erect and run a mill.
Dwellings for interpreter, etc.
Pawnees to be friendly, and not to make war, except, etc.
United States may build forts on lands of Pawnees.
White persons not to reside thereon unless licensed.
Pawnees not to alienate any part thereof.
United States to furnish six laborers.
Offenders against United States laws, etc., to be surrendered.
Provision for the half-breeds of the tribe.
Two thousand dollars to be paid Samuel Allis.
Acknowledgment of certain services by United States.
Contingent claims against the Pawnees. Conditions: In 1830, Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated many eastern tribes to west of the Mississippi. The federal government called the West “Indian country,” claiming it as a place where tribes could continue to practice their way of life unhindered by European immigrants The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 opened the land west of the Mississippi to European settlement Conditions: The population of Nebraska in1860 was 29,000 The population of Nebraska in 1870 was 123,000 By 1872, the U.S. Army pursued a policy to remove all Native Americans west of the Mississippi unless they agreed to live on reservations equipped with Christian missions and farming schools remove: exterminate Burial plot, standard size:
“range from 12 by 6 ft to 10 by 7 ft”
“each standard burial plot shall have a width of 3½ feet and a length of 10 feet”
“older spaces were 4 feet wide by 8 feet long but this was later changed to 4 feet wide by 10 feet long to accommodate burial vaults” My property lies within an iron fence that is flanked by cornfields 1 2 3 4 5 my immediate family owns five plots in the Fredrickson section of the Swede Home cemetery which takes up a corner of what was once the Fredrickson homestead When my great-great grandfather died he left a farm to each of his surviving sons By the time my mother was born, all that was left of the Fredrickson land was contained within the gates of the blue jeans Because of a lack of timber and stone on the Nebraska plains, homesteaders made their houses out of sod During the Great Depression, families in the Great Plains states were often unable to purchase plots for burial. In some cases the friends and family of the deceased shared the interment expenses, but it was often the case that no money was left over for purchasing a memorial stone Portions of cemeteries from this time period often appear to be open land, but in fact are home to a number of unmarked graves because they were marked with stones If you visit Nebraska today it is difficult to distinguish the sites of original homesteads as opposed to Kansas, where old property boundaries are still visible the welcome sign at the border of the state reads, “Nebraska…the good life” canned goods safety matches In his notes he wrote,
"The Great Plains region is almost wholly unfit for cultivation, and of course uninhabitable by a people depending upon agriculture for their subsistence.
This region, however, may prove of infinite importance to the United States, inasmuch as it is calculated to serve as a barrier to prevent too great an extension of our population westward." In 1820, Major Stephen Long led an expedition to Nebraska A few years ago, while planning my ailing uncle’s funeral, my mother and her siblings discovered that the Swede Home cemetery was running low on plots so they snatched one up for themselves and each of their children with a nice view of the stars On the day my parents purchased the land my father called to say that they had chosen a very good spot improve b : to increase the value of (land or property) by making it more useful for humans (as by cultivation or the erection of buildings) hover and press play which was in direct violation of the earlier treaties As I may never again live in Nebraska but may be dead there I find this particularly ironic hover and press play hover and press play "The dwelling-houses were set about haphazard on the tough prairie sod; some of them looked as if they had been moved in overnight, and others as if they were straying off by themselves, headed straight for the open plain. None of them had any appearance of permanence, and the howling wind blew under them as well as over them."
O Pioneers - Part I, Chapter I "The homesteads were few and far apart; here and there a windmill gaunt against the sky, a sod house crouching in a hollow. But the great fact was the land itself, which seemed to overwhelm the little beginnings of human society that struggled in its sombre wastes."
O Pioneers - Part I, Chapter 1 the great fact was the land itself this vast hardness "Of all the bewildering things about a new country, the absence of human landmarks is one of the most depressing and disheartening."
O Pioneers - Part I, Chapter II the unescapable ground in another form the litter of human dwellings "The shaggy coat of the prairie, which they lifted to make him a bed, has vanished forever. From the Norwegian graveyard one looks out over a vast checker-board, marked off in squares of wheat and corn; light and dark, dark and light. Telephone wires hum along the white roads, which always run at right angles."
O Pioneers - Book II, Chapter I such a power of growth these reassuring emblems of prosperity "There are only two or three human stories, and they go on repeating themselves as fiercely as if they had never happened before."
O Pioneers - Part II, Chapter IV "We are all alike; we have no ties, we know nobody, we own nothing. When one of us dies, they scarcely know where to bury him. Our landlady and the delicatessen man are our mourners, and we leave nothing behind us but a frock-coat and a fiddle, or an easel, or a typewriter, or whatever tool we got our living by."
O Pioneers - Part II, Chapter IV we leave nothing behind us but a frock-coat and a fiddle that, too, was beautiful I don’t presume that I will arrive at a cache of shiny mental bullion; I am more interested in the dirt and the digging than what comes to the surface. In 1830, there were 12,000 Pawnee in Nebraska
In 1859, there were 3,400 Pawnee in Nebraska
In 1874, the Pawnee were moved to Indian
Country in Oklahoma
In 1900, the Census reported only 600 surviving
Pawnee in the U.S.
In 2008, the Census reported just over 3,000 Pawnee,
2000 of whom live in Oklahoma smallpox cholera "It ain't that big. The whole United States ain't that big. It ain't that big. It ain't big enough. There ain't room enough for you an' me, for your kind an' my kind, for rich and poor together all in one country, for thieves and honest men. For hunger and fat."
The Grapes of Wrath - Chapter 12 "Is a tractor bad? Is the power that turns the long furrows wrong? If this tractor were ours, it would be good - not mine, but ours. We could love that tractor then as we have loved this land when it was ours."
The Grapes of Wrath - Chapter 14 "And the great owners, who must lose their land in an upheaval, the great owners with access to history, with eyes to read history and to know the great fact: when property accumulates in too few hands it is taken away. And that companion fact: when a majority of the people are hungry and cold they will take by force what they need. And the little screaming fact that sounds through all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the repressed."
The Grapes of Wrath - Chapter 19 "So easy, that the wonder goes out of the work, so efficient that the wonder goes out of the land and the working of it, and with the wonder the deep understanding and the relation."
Grapes of Wrath - Chapter 11 "Up ahead they's a thousan' lives we might live, but when it comes it'll on'y be one."
The Grapes of Wrath improve: a : to enhance in value or quality : make better how will we know it's us ain't big enough the little screaming fact that sounds through all history that man who is more than his elements knows the land that is more than its analysis barbed wire gas stoves erosion After applying for a quarter-section from the land grant office, homesteaders had to live on the land and make improvements the great fact was the land itself appearance of permanence a frock-coat and a fiddle of course uninhabitable Thesis Project . Emily Roehl
Mills College . Oakland, California
May 2010 this land when it was ours the absence of human landmarks so efficient light and dark,
dark and light